Pen and ink on board, 12.5 x 15.25 in. Initialed at left "A.R.W.," with ink title at top left and penciled description lower right. After a wartime sketch by Waud. Inscription on reverse reads: "Ft. Hell was officially named Ft. Sedgwick. The soldiers had good reason for preferring the first name and also naming Ft. Mahone which confronted it Ft. Damnation. Still another earthwork to the right in the distance was known as Ft. Heaven. Between the earthworks here 300 yards apart - both sides had a strong picket line in small rifle pits, so close together that the men could converse across the intervening space and even visit each other. It was agreed that they should not fire at each other without proper warning, and this was given by firing muskets in the air and crying 'Look out Yanks' or 'Look out Rebs' whenever either side received orders to open fire." Published in The American Heritage Century Collection of Civil War Art, p. 312, plate 328.
The David L. Hack Civil War Art Collection
While the photographic process evolved rapidly from its inception in 1839 and the wet plate process of taking photographs was coming into widespread use by the start of the Civil War, it was a cumbersome process in the field as well as the studio. More significantly, at that time the photographs themselves could not be reproduced as illustrations accompanying written reports of the war.
As a result, publishers of newspapers and other periodicals in major cities, primarily in the North, employed a number of sketch artists who traveled with armies to draw the scenes that they witnessed. These sketches, most frequently pencil on paper with brief identifications of people and places, were then sent back by courier to the periodical publishers. The battlefield sketches received by the publishers were then copied by engraving artists onto wooden blocks, which were used in printing presses to illustrate printed articles covering the war.
Unlike the photographers of the day, who were limited to capturing the aftermath of battles, the sketch artists had the advantage of recording what they were witnessing as the events occurred before their eyes.
Lots 174-180 feature the original artwork of noted battlefield artist Alfred R. Waud (1828-1891). Born and raised in London, Waud studied at the Government School of Design at Somerset House before immigrating to the United States in 1850. Upon his arrival, Waud worked primarily as a freelance artist until May of 1861 when he was retained as a sketch artist and special correspondent by the New York Illustrated Newspaper to report on the war. At the close of 1861, Waud joined Harper's Weekly, where he was employed through the end of the war. He continued to work for Harper's Weekly in addition to a number of other publishers following the war and his career flourished. While touring battlefields in the South in 1891, Waud died in Marietta, GA. The Library of Congress houses most of his original wartime sketches, with some remaining in private hands.
In the 1880s, the popular Century Magazine started publishing the narratives of Civil War veterans and retained a large number of sketch artists including Waud to illustrate the articles. They used interviews, photographs, and prior war-date sketches to produce accurate pictorial representations of the war. These illustrated accounts were incorporated into a large four-volume work entitled Battles and Leaders of the Civil War in 1881. Almost a century later, in 1973, American Heritage Magazine acquired the collection of drawings that had been held by Century Magazine, which were subsequently reproduced in The American Heritage Century Collection of Civil War Art published in 1974. Christie's conducted two public auctions in 1988, which were comprised of the remaining original Century Magazine Collection of Civil War artwork that was dispersed by American Heritage Magazine, and a number of drawings by Waud were acquired by the consignor, with many being offered today.
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