Pages 339-383, 5 x 8 1/4 in. (Disbound, some leaves partially separated from spine, some chipping at edges.) One engraved plate.
News magazine containing inside page, 2-column eyewitness account by George Washington of the Battle of Jumonville, the opening battle of the French & Indian War (pp. 370-371). One of the earliest printings of a significant event described by Washington marking the very beginning of the French and Indian War.
The Battle of Jumonville Glen, also known as the Jumonville affair, was the opening battle of the French and Indian War, fought on May 28, 1754, near present-day Hopwood and Uniontown in Fayette County, Pennsylvania. A company of colonial militia from Virginia under the command of Lieutenant Colonel George Washington, and a small number of Mingo warriors led by Tanacharison (also known as "Half King"), ambushed a force of 35 Canadiens under the command of Joseph Coulon de Villiers de Jumonville.
A larger French Canadian force had driven off a small crew attempting to construct a British fort under the auspices of the Ohio Company at present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, land claimed by the French. A British colonial force led by George Washington was sent to protect the fort under construction. The French Canadians sent Jumonville to warn Washington about encroaching on French-claimed territory. Washington was alerted to Jumonville's presence by Tanacharison, and they joined forces to ambush the Canadian camp. Washington's force killed Jumonville and some of his men in the ambush, and captured most of the others. The exact circumstances of Jumonville's death are a subject of historical controversy and debate.
Since Britain and France were not then at war, the event had international repercussions, and was a contributing factor in the start of the Seven Years' War in 1756. After the action, Washington retreated to Fort Necessity, where Canadian forces from Fort Duquesne compelled his surrender. The terms of Washington's surrender included a statement (written in French, a language Washington did not read) admitting that Jumonville was assassinated. This document and others were used by the French and Canadians to level accusations that Washington had ordered Jumonville's slaying.
4pp., folio, 11 1/2 x 18 1/2 in. (Disbound, partial separation at centerfold, some chipping at edges, occasional spotting).
The issue features a front-page headline, “Physical and Meteorological Observations, Conjectures, and Suppositions," by Benjamin Franklin, "Read Before the Royal Society." This long, detailed paper contains writings on weather phenomena by Franklin, who pioneered scientific study of meteorology in America.
Each issue 14pp., folio, 8 1/4 x 10 3/4 in. (Disbound, some issues with partial separation at centerfold, toning, spotting, soiling, some with chipping and short tears at edges.)
Eight issues containing all 12 "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania," the 12-part essay written by John Dickinson in favor of the American Colonies breaking with Great Britain over taxes. These include the following issues - 21 December 1767 -- 21-28 December 1767. -- 28 December 1767 to 4 January 1768. -- 11-18 January 1768. -- 25 January to 1 February 1768. -- 1-8 February 1768. -- 8-15 February 1768. -- 29 February to 7 March 1768. It is very difficult to find all twelve letters in a single lot of newspapers.
"Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" is a series of essays written by the Pennsylvania lawyer and legislator John Dickinson (1732–1808) and published under the pseudonym "A Farmer" from 1767 to 1768. The 12 letters were widely read and reprinted throughout the Thirteen Colonies, and were important in uniting the colonists against the Townshend Acts in the run-up to the American Revolution. According to many historians, the impact of the Letters on the colonies was unmatched until the publication of Thomas Paine's Common Sense in 1776. The success of the letters earned Dickinson considerable fame.
The 12 letters are written in the voice of a fictional farmer, who is described as modest but learned, an American Cincinnatus, and the text is laid out in a highly organized pattern "along the lines of ancient rhetoric." The letters laid out a clear constitutional argument, that the British Parliament had the authority to regulate colonial trade but not to raise revenue from the colonies. This view became the basis for subsequent colonial opposition to the Townshend Acts, and was influential in the development of colonial thinking about the relationship with Britain. The letters are noted for their mild tone, and urged the colonists to seek redress within the British constitutional system. The character of "the farmer," a persona built on English pastoral writings whose style American writers before Dickinson also adopted, gained a reputation independent of Dickinson, and became a symbol of moral virtue, employed in many subsequent American political writings.
4 pp., folio, 10 x 15 3/4 in. (Disbound, partial separation at centerfold, occasional spotting/staining, chipping to edges.)
Beginning with three columns of text on the front page and covering five columns total, this Colonial-era newspaper contains long, detailed coverage of the Agreement of Nonimportation of British Goods into the American Colonies until the British repeal all taxes on the American Colonies. The issue also contains an inside-page report of the erection of a "Liberty Pole” in New York City as a symbol of Colonial resistance to British taxes. This was printed just weeks before the Boston Massacre that would sway public opinion in the Colonies against British rule, and act to hasten the onset of the Revolutionary War.
8pp., folio, 8.75 x 11.5 in. (Disbound, some areas of partial separation at central fold, chipping at edges.) Provenance: Library of Stephen Foreman (blindstamp on newspaper, lower right).
Revolutionary War-era newspaper containing an inside-page printing of a long extract from a letter from George Washington to various military regiments in Virginia. In this text, Washington announces that the Continental Congress has selected him to be the leader of the Continental Army, and that he (Washington) would be leaving Virginia for Boston, MA, where he would take command of the American Army to fight the British in the Revolutionary War.
Important newspaper announcement in which George Washington took over command of the American Army.
4pp., folio, 12 x 17.75 in. (Disbound, fold lines, some chipping at edges, some penciled notes on p.1.) Provenance: Library of Stephen Foreman (blindstamp on newspaper, p.1, lower right).
The issue features a front-page news report on the Battle of Trenton and Princeton, New Jersey, in which George Washington and his Continental Army surprised the British and their Hessian allies after crossing the Delaware River on Christmas night in 1776.
Order of Battle, Command of Genl. Sir William Howe. N.p., 8 June 1777. 1 page, 12.25 x 15.5 in. (sight), on laid paper with "Britannia" watermark. Various commanders and units diagrammed. (Single glazed with photocopy of docketing on verso).
Manuscript document. N.p., 5 January 1767. Account of Infantry "in foreign stations." 3 pages, with docketing on p.4, 9.5 x 14.5 in., on laid paper with "Strasburg Lily" watermark, right edge of pages scuffed with some missing paper; central fold separating. "Near half the Regiments of Infantry are in Foreign Stations, the keeping them in perfect order becomes therefore a consideration of a very serious nature. Wisdom as well as Humanity suggests the propriety of a regular Rotation, least the nature of the service [illeg] the difficulty of recruiting whilst abroad should only(?) annihilate those brave corps, that must ever in [the] annals of the late successful war do honour to the country." The following two pages give numbers of men. He lists 21 regiments in America, totaling 10,164 Officers and men.
Particular State of the Army acting in the Field on the Coast of the Atlantick, at the Close of the Campaign. Atlantic Coast, 1777. 3 pages, with docketing on p. 4, approx. 8 x 12.5 in., on laid paper with "Strasburg Lily" watermark, double-sided frame. The first page enumerates troops in Philadelphia; the second page, New York and Rhode Island; the third page, troops with Burgoyne and remainder.
Particulars of the State of His Majesty's Forces January 1778 or according to the Latest Returns. N.p., January 1778. 3 pages, with docketing on p. 4, 7.75 x 12.5 in., on laid paper with crowned "GR" watermark and "Pro Patria, Maid of Dorf" watermark, double-sided frame. Page 3 shows troops in North America - Philadelphia, New York, Rhode Island, Florida, Halifax, with Genl. Burgoyne, Canada. He seems to be showing nearly 60,000 in North America with nearly half in Philadelphia.
Brigading of the Troops. Near Plymouth, 1781. 3 pages, with docketing on p.4, approx. 7 x 9 in., on laid paper with "Portal" watermark. Several areas crossed out.
Establishment of His Majesty's Forces. N.p., 1 March 1782. 1 page, sight 14 x 18.5 in., on laid paper, framed, with photocopy of docketing on verso. Lists of counties with numbers of men, and ranks (Colonels, L. Colonels, Majors, Captains,....Privates, Total) from each.
Present Disposition and Effective Strength of the Troops in the North Eastern District, Under the Command of the Right Honorable Lt. General Lord Adam Gordon, &c., &c., &c. Head Quarters, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 6 June 1782. 1 page, 8 x 13 in., on laid paper with "J. BIGG" watermark, appears to have lost a section at the bottom.
Quarters for the Cavalry in Great Britain 1789. N.p., 1789. 2 pages, docketing on p.4, 7.75 x 12.75 in., on laid paper with "WJ" monogram and "Pro Patria, Maiden of Dorf" watermarks, small loss to edge, toned. Examples: 1st Dragoon Guards: 4 Exeter, 2 Axminster & Chard, 1 Ottery St. Mary, 1 Newton Bushel, 1 Totness & Bridge Town. 1st Dragoons: 4 York, 1 Malton, 1 Beverly; etc.
4pp., folio, 9 3/4 x 15 1/4 in. (Disbound, partial separation at centerfold, staining throughout, chipping to edges.)
This Revolutionary War newspaper contains a long, detailed 2pp. essay signed in type by “An Independent American” heralding the ratification of the Articles of Confederation by the American Colonies (p. 2). The issue also contains a 2pp. report of the victory by Daniel Morgan over British Lieutenant, Colonel Banastre Tarleton, at the Battle of Cowpens, South Carolina, and describes a gold medal to be presented to Morgan by the Continental Congress in honor of his victory in the battle (p. 2).
4pp., folio, 12 1/2 x 18 in. (Partial separation at central fold, toning, spotting, chipping, some edge/corner loss, Scotch tape repair to short tear at right edge of central horizontal fold on p.1.) Provenance: Library of Stephen Foreman (blindstamp on newspaper, p.3, lower right).
Newspaper containing inside page letter signed in type by British General Carlton in which he announces his intention to evacuate all of the British military forces from New York City as a result of the Treaty of Paris, thus giving recognition of the independence of the United States of America from Great Britain and officially ending the Revolutionary War (p.2).
more than 200 letters spanning 1741-1815 (bulk 1780-1799). Majority are unsigned, draft copies of letters written by Holten and sent to family, friends, and fellow politicians, each meticulously cataloged in his hand with a note identifying the intended recipient and the date written. Most correspondence unfolds during later stages of the Revolutionary War, and during critical early years of the new nation as the Massachusetts state constitution was written, the US Constitution was drafted, and as states and politicians debated and approved these documents. A smaller selection of letters in the archive was written to Holten, from correspondents including: Revolutionary War hero and statesman, HUTCHINSON, Col. Israel (ca 1727-1811); educator and statesman, LOVELL, James (1737-1814); diplomat for the United States in Paris and to Spain, CARMICHAEL, William (ca 1739-1795); and Massachusetts minister, WADSWORTH, Benjamin (1750-1826). References to George Washington, John Adams, John Hancock, Joseph Warren, Elbridge Gerry, and more.
[With:] Monthly account statements spanning 1807-1811 related to Holten's service as Probate Judge for Essex County, each page approx. 6.75 x 8 in., approx. 120pp.
Physician by trade and politician by passion, Samuel Holten was a zealous Patriot who dedicated his life to public service. Born in Salem Village (now Danvers), Holten studied medicine and was a practicing physician in his hometown as hostilities with the British reached a crisis point in the 1770s. He served as a major in the First Essex County Regiment militia. Alongside such notables as Paul Revere, Samuel Adams, and John Hancock, he began his political career serving as a member of the Massachusetts Provincial Congress from 1774 to 1775 and the Massachusetts Committee of Safety in 1775. Holten served as a Massachusetts delegate to the Continental Congress from 1778-1780, and the United States in Congress Assembled 1783-1785, and 1787. During his terms, he signed the Articles of Confederation and was elected to serve as the legislative body's president pro tempore in August 1785. In 1792, Holten was elected to the US House of Representatives for the Third US Congress. At the state level, he was a member of the 1779 Massachusetts constitutional convention; served as a state senator from 1780-1782, and in 1784, 1786, 1789, and 1790; and served on the Governor's Council. In 1796 he was appointed judge in Essex County Probate Court, a position he held until his resignation in 1815.
The earliest documents in the collection (4 in total) are dated 1741, 1749, 1762, and 1767 respectively, and bear little relation to the rest of the archive. Documents from the 1770s (11 documents) are mostly personal in nature but begin to introduce Holten's political activity, most strikingly in a document identified by Holten as "A Copy of a Complaint from [sd?] Town Clerk of Salem & warrant thereon." Dated June 1777, the document was drafted in response to a May 1777 Act of the State of Massachusetts Bay, "An Act for Securing this and other United States against the danger to which they are exposed by the internal Enemies thereof." Holten's draft indicates that on the 27th of May "the selectmen of said Town of Salem did lay before said Town a list of all such persons belonging to said Town as they did know or believe have been endeavoring since the nineteenth day of April In the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventy five to counteract the United struggles of this and the United States for the preservation of their liberties & privileges," and continues then to name such persons and authorize their arrest. As a Justice of the Peace, Holten was one of the men to which the document was addressed. Four additional documents relate to Boston merchant Elias E. Warner (ca 1749-1781), brother of Holten's wife Mary Warner Holten (1737-1813).
More than 100 documents span 1780-1790, with another 50 documents dating from 1790-1799. Comprised almost entirely of letters, this correspondence elucidates, in part, the difficulties of the legislative process at the state and national levels, the political side of military conflict, and the hardships endured by those on the home front during the Revolutionary Era. Documents include: a draft letter to John Avery, Philadelphia, 2 May 1780, in which he describes the state of public affairs as a "distressed and reduced situation, owing to the depreciated state of our currency, it has almost put a total stop to all our proceedings, & without money & provisions it will be impossible to keep the army together"; Holten's draft letter to the "Honorable President of the Senate of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts," 3 Nov. 1780, requesting leave to resign his seat in Congress, noting that "[he] had given my constant attendance for more than two years" but was now desirous to render service "in a place that will not require my being so long absent from my family"; a letter from James Lovell, 8 May 1781, noting that "the States in most Credit for Compliance with the requisitions of Congress are very back[?] and the affairs of the Continent are consequently in a most alarming Situation"; Holten's draft of the "Report upon D Warren's acct. April 1782" which details how the state of Massachusetts will provide funds to Dr. John Warren for the maintenance and education of the children of Dr. Joseph Warren, deceased hero of the Battle of Bunker Hill; and a letter again from James Lovell, 26 March 1783, offering a glimpse into the ongoing peace negotiations happening in Paris, noting that "by a Letter of Mr. Adams in Paris I find he was in Tip Top Spirits upon our 'wonderful Success.'"
As the war drew to a close Holten and his fellow statesmen turned to the business of running a country. Honoring payments to soldiers continues to be an area of discussion, as does the legal documents being drafted to establish laws of the new nation. Writing to "Mr. Wadsworth" while serving as a member of the Confederation Congress in 1784, Holten notes that "Congress have [sic] many important matters to attend to at this time the fortresses on our northern frontiers & within our lines are still in the possession of the British; our western Country requires great attention particularly the navigation of the Mississippi River which the Court of Madrid may think they have an inclusive right to; our finances, public credit, evaluation [?] of the US and settlement of our accounts with each state in the union" being among his tops concerns. In a draft letter to Col. Israel Hutchinson written from New York on 2 June 1785, Holten references the landmark Land Ordinance of 1785, noting that he will "enclose a copy of the late ordinance respecting the western territory which took up much time in Congress, but passed unanimously at last." Writing to Holten from the Massachusetts Ratifying Convention in Boston on 25 January 1788 and again on the 28th, Col. Hutchinson updates him on the progress there and the conflict between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists: "I suppose you have heard of the circumstances the party in favor of Constitution I think [has?] grown But I think there will be proposals of amendment and can say no more at present." On the 28th he offered this: "we have now got to the Judiciary power mutch [sic] said for and against it" with the proposals differing greatly and amendments being offered. Correspondence in this era also includes letters between Holten and family members, including son-in-laws John Kettell (1749-1801) and Lake Webster (1755-1800). Of note is that Lake Webster appears to have acquired an amount of debt which he could not pay, and which landed him in debtor's prison in Philadelphia as noted in his letter to Holten of 1 March 1786.
The remaining 38 documents (1800-1815) include material related to Holten's work as Probate Judge, though most are personal in nature with the majority being correspondence from family members most notably his grandchildren, George Osgood, Israel Putnam, Eleazaer Putnam, Porter Kettell, and Samuel Holten Webster.
Condition of documents varies, though most are generally good. Letters are typically legible with creasing at folds, many with tears along fold lines.
A HISTORICALLY SIGNIFICANT ARCHIVE DEMONSTRATING THE TUMULTUOUS NATURE OF THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD AND THE DEDICATION OF THOSE PATRIOTS ENDEAVORING TO CREATE A NEW NATION.
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DAYTON, Jonathan (1760-1824). ALS, Elizabethtown, NJ. About Northwest Territory real estate to James Heaton of Hamilton, Ohio. Dayton was one of the youngest representatives to the Constitutional Convention, signing for his home state of New Jersey.
St. Thomas Jenifer, Daniel (1723-1790). ALS, Maryland, Oct. 5, 1757. Daniel signed the Constitution as a representative from Maryland.
BARTLETT, Josiah, (1720-1795). ANS, 8 Aug. 1783, order for payment from the Committee of Safety, New Hampshire to John Taylor Gilman, Treasurer. Bartlett signed the Declaration of Independence as a representative from New Hampshire.
BRAXTON, Carter (1736-1797). AL, 2 Sept. 1788, docketed on verso as being from Carter Braxton. Braxton signed the Declaration of Independence as a representative from Virginia.
CLYMER, George (1739-1813). DS, Philadelphia, May 4, 1802. Promissory note to pay George Clymer $1738. Clymer signed the Declaration of Independence as a representative of Pennsylvania.
ELLERY, William (1727-1820). ANS, Newport, 8 Oct, 1805. Receipt for monies received. Ellery signed the Declaration of Independence as a representative from Rhode Island.
GERRY, Elbridge (1744-1814). Appears to be a page from a copybook. The paper is very thin and the ink a bit "fuzzy." The paper also has the typical wrinkles of a wet-transfer copy. Gerry signed the Declaration of Independence as a representative from Massachusetts.
HOPKINS, Stephen (1707-1785). NS by Hopkins. Note to pay Thomas Vernon, 1764. Hopkins signed the Declaration of Independence as a representative from Rhode Island.
HOPKINSON, Francis (1737-1791). DS, "order to pay six hundred dollars, in Three Thousand Livres Tournois, for Interest due on Money by the United States." Hopkinson signed the Declaration of Independence as a representative from New Jersey.
PAINE, Robert Treat (1731-1814). DS, Bristol, Sept. 24, 1770, as Justice of the Peace. Paine signed the Declaration of Independence as a representative from Massachusetts.
RUSH, Dr. Benjamin. Receipt for 20 dollars for one month rent, signed Hester R. McClean. Dr. Rush signed the Declaration of Independence as a representative from Pennsylvania.
THORNTON, Matthew (1714-1803). ADS, Oct. 25, 1765, indenture for land. Thornton signed the Declaration of Independence as a representative from New Hampshire.
WILLIAMS, William (1731-1811). ALS, Hartford, May 1772. Williams signed the Declaration of Independence as a representative from Connecticut.
WILSON, James (1742-1785). DS, January Term, 1771. Partially printed DS, summons for court. Associated with James Wilson (Judge?). Wilson signed the Declaration of Independence as a representative from Pennsylvania.
Indenture, vellum, approx. 14.755 x 19.5 in. 10 July 1795, Philadelphia. Between Thomas Willing and Robert Morris of the first part and Edward McCafferty of the second part for "a certain lot or piece of ground" ..."on the East side of a certain twelve feet wide Alley... and on the South side of a certain sixteen feet wide Alley or passage between fifth and sixth Streets...." Red wax seals beside Willing and Morris' signatures as well as the Justice of the Peace are chipping away, but still partially present.
Born in England in 1734, Robert Morris immigrated to North America in 1747, first to Oxford, Maryland, then to Philadelphia, where he apprenticed with the shipping and banking firm of Charles Willing. Almost immediately Willing's son, Thomas, and Robert Morris agreed to go into business together, an association that would last until 1793. Morris served as a member of the state legislature, the 2nd Continental Congress and the U.S. Senate. He signed the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation and U.S. Constitution. During 1781-1784 he served as Superintendent of Finance, giving him the unofficial title of "Financier of the Revolution." He would help set up the Bank of North America, but refused to take the position of Secretary of the Treasury.
Thomas Willing (1731-1821) was a Philadelphia native. He served as Mayor of the city, a delegate to the Continental Congress among other positions. He would later become the first President of the first Bank of North America, the first President of the Bank of the United States.
After the War, speculation was seen by the upper classes as a quick way to recover from the financial ravages of the war. Willing and Morris engaged in land speculation along with dozens of their countrymen. Unfortunately that "bubble" burst in 1796-1797 triggering a financial panic on the heels of the one that had happened in 1792. This indenture documenting a sale of land in 1795 was likely one of a few he still controlled with Thomas Willing, even though they were no longer formally in business together. Morris would be unable to pay debts accrued in the land speculation and would spend 1798-1801 in a debtor's apartment adjacent to Walnut Street Prison. After his release, he lived quietly until his death in 1806.
4pp., folio, 10 1/4 x 16 1/2 in. (Disbound, partial separation at centerfold, toning, occasional spotting). Provenance: Library of Stephen Foreman (blindstamp on newspaper, p.1, lower right).
This issue contains front, inside, and back-page, local coverage of the death and funeral of Benjamin Franklin, which took place in Philadelphia.
Each issue 4pp., folio, 8 1/2 x 10 3/4 in. (Disbound, toning, occasional spotting and staining, some chipping at edges.)
Two issues containing coverage of the death of Alexander Hamilton following a duel with Aaron Burr at Weehawken, NJ. The 17 July issue contains “breaking news” of Hamilton’s death, with black “mourning rules” on page 3 in memory of Hamilton. The 31 July issue contains “black mourning rules” on each page, and the issue is devoted to Hamilton’s funeral oration, the correspondence between Burr and Hamilton that led to the duel, Hamilton’s last will and testament, and a poem on Hamilton’s grave.
Each issue 4pp., folio, approx. 12 1/2 x 18 3/4 in., or smaller. (Each disbound, some chipping and loss at edges and corners, occasional spotting or soiling). 27 March 1790 issue is No. 3, while 30 October 1790 issue was previously trimmed along top edge, so issue number is no longer visible.
The March issue contains an inside page, quarter-length column early report of the Mutiny on the Bounty, while the October issue contains a quarter-length column essay speculating on the reasons for the Mutiny on the Bounty and the establishment of a force to search for the perpetrators of it.
The mutiny on the Royal Navy vessel HMS Bounty occurred in the South Pacific Ocean on 28 April 1789. Disaffected crewmen, led by Lieutenant Fletcher Christian, seized control of the ship from their captain, Lieutenant William Bligh, and set him and eighteen loyalists adrift in the ship's open launch. The mutineers variously settled on Tahiti or on Pitcairn Island. Bligh navigated more than 3,500 nautical miles in the launch to reach safety, and began the process of bringing the mutineers to justice.
Bounty had left England in 1787 on a mission to collect and transport breadfruit plants from Tahiti to the West Indies. A five-month layover in Tahiti, during which many of the men lived ashore and formed relationships with native Polynesians, led many men to be less amenable to military discipline. Relations between Bligh and his crew deteriorated after he began handing out increasingly harsh punishments, criticism and abuse, Christian being a particular target. After three weeks back at sea, Christian and others forced Bligh from the ship. Twenty-five men remained on board afterwards, including loyalists held against their will and others for whom there was no room in the launch.
After Bligh reached England in April 1790, the Admiralty dispatched HMS Pandora to apprehend the mutineers. Fourteen were captured in Tahiti and imprisoned on board Pandora, which then searched without success for Christian's party that had hidden on Pitcairn Island. After turning back towards England, Pandora ran aground on the Great Barrier Reef, with the loss of 31 crew and four prisoners from Bounty. The ten surviving detainees reached England in June 1792 and were court-martialed; four were acquitted, three were pardoned and three were hanged.
Christian's group remained undiscovered on Pitcairn until 1808, by which time only one mutineer, John Adams, remained alive. Almost all of his fellow mutineers, including Christian, had been killed, either by each other or by their Polynesian companions.
8pp., folio, 8 1/4 x 10 1/2 in. (Disbound, toning in margins, chipping and some loss to edges and corners.)
Rare early Jamaica newspaper “extra” edition containing a prominent front-page headline, “Battle of Trafalgar,” and 11 columns of text with eyewitness accounts of the decisive battle in which the British naval fleet led by Admiral Horatio Nelson defeated the combined Spanish-French naval fleet. This seminal naval battle established the naval supremacy of Great Britain for the next 2 centuries. Admiral Nelson was killed in the battle. This newspaper also contains an inside-page headline, “Will of Lord Nelson," printing the details of his last will and testament. Several advertisements for enslaved people are also included.
Gazette of the United States. New York: John Fenno, 10 July 1790. 10 x 16 in., 4pp. Vol. II, No. 26 (toned, scattered spotting). Issue contains a notice of the 5 July 1790, "Act to authorize the purchase of a tract of Land for the use of the United States" under heading "Laws of the United States. Published by Authority. Congress of the United States. At the Second Session." The Act, which authorized the President to purchase West Point "for the purpose of such fortifications and garrisons as may be necessary for the defense of the same [United States]," is printed in full and includes names signed in type of Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg, Speaker of the House, along with Vice President Adams, President Washington, and Secretary of State Jefferson.
[With:] Four consecutive issues of the Windham Herald. Windham, CT: John Byrne, 6, 13, 20, 27 February 1800. approx. 10.5 x 16.5 in. 4pp, Vol. IX, Nos. 466-469 (all disbound, some toning). Issue No. 466 devotes the entire front page to a report from Secretary of War James McHenry (1753-1816) in which he describes "certain measures which appear to him to be necessary for the improvement of our military System," beginning with the establishment of a "Military Academy" as a "means of preparing such a force with certainty and expedition" as was necessary for the safety and security of the nation. A lengthy description of the proposed schools within the academy and the officers, professors, and teachers that would be employed ensues. The following three issues continue with the remainder of the Secretary's report, devoting nearly an entire page on the 13th, approx. 1.5 pages on the 20th, and just over a full page on the 27th.
Two years after the Windham Heralds were published, President Jefferson, at last, signed the legislation that would formally establish the United States Military Academy at West Point.
Together, 5 newspapers, condition generally good.
8 original ink and watercolor vignettes surrounding a portrait of Captain Isaac Hull, all matted and framed together to 27 1/4 x 27 3/4 in. (some dampstaining and discoloration to illustrations and mat, unexamined out of the frame). Tricolor text in banner across top of display reads, "U.S. Frigate Constitution 1812," while banner at bottom reads, "Old Ironsides 1897." Scenes include: "The Constitution in close action with the Guerriere Aug 20 1812," "The Constitution chased by the British Squadron July 12," and "The Constitution taking the Cayne [sic] and Levant Feb 28 1815." Provenance: Milton Sprague Stearns Jr. (Deed of Gift affixed to frame verso).
During the War of 1812, the USS Constitution defeated four Royal Navy ships, even earning the nickname "Old Ironsides" in battle with the HMS Guerriere. In command of the ship during that battle was Isaac Hull, whose victory earned him a gold medal from Congress and $50,000 to share with his crew. The result of this first frigate battle of the war was a surprise to both sides, as The Times of London expressed: "Never before in the history of the world did a British frigate strike to an American."
Sixth plate daguerreotype. (Some spotting to plate, tarnish near mat opening, clouding, contrast a bit weak.) Housed in full pressed paper case (separated at hinge, some surface wear).
Studio portrait of an unknown Union cavalry private wearing a regulation 13-button shell jacket with handkerchief tucked into the placket. His belt plate is the standard rectangular mounted eagle pattern. The subject carries the obligatory M1840 wristbreaker with two revolvers, a belted Colt 1851 Navy and what appears to be W.W. Marston Pocket revolver, 7th Type (approx. 3000 made).
Quarter plate ruby ambrotype featuring a seated militiamen clad in a distinctive New York Militia uniform, posed with his bayonetted rifle. (Sharp detail, some light surface wear visible at mat opening.) Housed in half case (some scuffing, label marked "37" affixed to back of case). The subject's plumed shako fitted with brass regimental plates is displayed on the table beside him.
2 x 3 1/4 in. CDV on cardstock mount of "Henry C. Mathewson / Co. E 1st Conn. / Artillery" (period inscription verso). N.p.: n.p., [1860s] (toning, light spotting; mount with corner and edge wear, some staining/spotting). Mathewson is shown holding his kepi, which includes infantry insignia.
Quarter plate tintype of Mathewson in uniform, slightly more disheveled in appearance, suggesting that this portrait was taken later in the war. (Strong clarity and contrast, tarnish ring near mat opening.) Housed in full pressed paper case (split at hinge, some surface wear).
A fine pair of images of the same identified private from Co. E, 1st Connecticut Heavy Artillery, which was engaged at the Siege of Petersburg at the end of the war, having spent most of its service in the Washington Defenses. Mathewson ("Matthewson" in HDS) mustered into Co. E on 12/31/1863, serving through 9/25/1865 when he mustered out at Washington, DC.
Quarter plate ruby ambrotype of a mounted bugler beautifully hand-tinted. (Exceptional clarity and contrast, few minor abrasions in surface where plate meets mat.) Housed in full Union case, Suspended Bowl with Flowers [Berg 2-9] (loose hinges, some chipping to edges and corners).
The bearded subject stands in a studio with sword in hand before a canvas backdrop depicting a camp scene. He wears a gold-tinted, regulation pattern shell jacket with the correct number of horizontal rows of gold piped braid emanating from the placket. The image is a classic study of a cavalry bugler.
Quarter plate ambrotype of an infantry private uniformed in regulation 4-button sack coat, his kepi resting on the table beside him. (Exceptionally clear, strong contrast, few minor spots.) Housed in half pressed paper case (surface scuffing, some surface loss). The raincover over the kepi with square bill is indicative of a late 1861-1862 date as this piece of accoutrement was soon dispensed with. While the older private remains seated, he looks as if he's posed to spring from the chair.
Quarter plate, lightly hand-colored tintype of an anonymous bearded cavalry private uniformed in a 10 or 11 button shell jacket and regulation rectangular mounted belt plate with a pistol cap box. (Clarity a bit weak, light surface wear visible at mat opening.) Housed in half pressed paper case (loss to top edge, surface wear throughout).
Quarter plate tintype portrait of a soldier and his family including wife and two daughters. (Excellent clarity, some spotting to mat and preserver.) Housed under mat, glass, and preserver only (no case). The federal private wears a regulation frock coat with collar and cuff piping and a forage cap while holding his youngest daughter, who wears a lightly-tinted pink dress, in his lap. His wife holds what appears to be an image of a soldier in one hand.
Sixth plate ruby ambrotype. (Discoloration and some flaking of emulsion near mat opening.) Housed in full pressed paper case (reinforced at hinge, some surface scuffing). The private wears an issue dark blue forage cap but retains his early war grey militia uniform, possibly New York based on the cloth shoulder straps trimmed with a narrow band of light colored piping. An uncommon and compelling portrait of a soldier with his child.
Sixth plate tintype of a family grouping, including two soldiers standing in the back row behind a row of ladies holding their bonnets (strong clarity and contrast). Housed in full leather case (reinforced at hinge). Slip of paper enclosed in case reads, "Estate Hawkins Family Greenwich Ohio."
Quarter plate tintype full standing portrait of a soldier in uniform, presumably Willard Norton, armed with a bayonetted musket, and posed before an illustrated backdrop featuring tents, an American flag, and a cannon. N.p.: n.p., [1860s]. (Some dents and scratches to plate, with spotting to mat.) Housed under mat only, no glass, preserver, or case. Typewritten inventory claims image was found in Willard Norton's uniform pouch.
New York Gettysburg Veteran's medal with bar commemorating the dates of the battle and medallion featuring the New York State Gettysburg monument flanked by dates "1863" and "1893" on obverse, and the New York state seal on reverse. Medal with tricolor ribbon attached to bar. Housed in original box. Lg. 3 3/4 in. -- Sons of Civil War Veterans medal with bar featuring the Latin phrase, "Filii Veteranorum" and medallion featuring the intertwined "SV" logo along with Latin motto "Gratia Dei Servatus" and roman numeral "MDCCCLXXXI" surrounded by wreath and surmounted by eagle on obverse. Bar and medallion connected by tricolor ribbon. Lg. 2 7/8 in. -- New York Day ribbon with bar featuring crossed sword and rifle surmounted by banner reading "New York Day" and flanked by dates "1863" and "1893," and frayed blue ribbon featuring gilt New York state seal with text above and below reading "Veteran / Gettysburg / July 1 2 3 / 1893." Lg. 7 1/4 in. -- And 5 other ribbons and badges, including Odd Fellows and GAR examples. Condition generally fair, with some discoloration and fraying common throughout.
[With:] Woven star and tassel with handwritten note on fabric identifying the pieces as parts of an "old flag Willard brought home from the army in 1865." Typed inventory identifies the author of the note as "Aunt Jenny," (presumably Willard's wife or sister). -- GAR cufflink (discoloration to surface). Diam. 5/8 in. -- Graphite rubbing of a Union eagle breastplate on paper with handwritten note below reading, "A rubbing of a brass orniment [sic] which is attached to cross belt of Uncle Willard's Uniform." Note bears partially obscured printed header reading, in part, "Bruce F.S. Norton." -- Typed inventory with partially discernable signature, "[?] Norton," dated in ink to upper right, "Reviewed, 02/05/80."
Willard Norton enlisted as a private in August of 1862 when he was 18 years old. He mustered into Company F, 122nd New York Infantry Regiment on August 15th, and mustered out three years later after being promoted to the rank of corporal in September of 1864.
Sixth plate ruby ambrotype. (Scattered spotting concentrated in top left portion of plate, strong clarity.) Housed in half pressed paper case (surface wear). Studio portrait of seated 2nd lieutenant with sword in hand, his buttons, insignia, belt plate, and sword tinted gold. With penciled note identifying the subject as "My brother Willie Dawson Sullivan / [signed] R.H. Sullivan."
At the age of 26, William D. Sullivan enlisted at Oswego, NY, as a sergeant and mustered into Co. I, 147th New York Infantry on 8/23/1862. The 147th NY was caught up in the precipitous retreat of the shattered 1st Corps through Gettysburg on the first day of fighting, and as a result, Sullivan was taken prisoner (7/1/1863). Following his parole, Sullivan was subsequently promoted to 2nd lieutenant 7/1/1864, around the time this portrait was likely taken, and discharged on 7/14/1865 at Washington, DC.
Sixth plate ruby ambrotype of an early war militiaman probably hailing from Rhode Island. (Tarnish and some discoloration near mat opening.) Housed in half pressed paper case (surface wear, scuffing).
The subject's pleated shirt is typical of Rhode Island, while the rain cover over the forage cap was quickly dispensed with as a piece of shoddy, cumbersome kit. He sports a fashionable goatee of the style favored by urban dandies, and wears a common militia belt plate (similar to Gavin Plate 42, p. 62) often associated with New England troops. Tucked into the waist belt is a small caliber Colt Root (sidehammer) revolver, a popular civilian weapon never issued to the military.
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