Thornton, Matthew (1714-1803). Signer of the Declaration of Independence as Continental Congress Delegate from New Hampshire. ADS as Justice of the Peace, "Mathew Thornton," 1p, 7.5 x 12 in., "Province of New- / Hampshire." February 7, 1767. Document records the receipt of "Eighteen pounds," from the late Archibald McMurphy to John and Elizabeth Pinkerton of Londonderry, for which they release their rights to the estates of the late John and Alexander McMurphy, except for "a Right of Land in a New Township Called Number Six." Document includes signatures of John and Elizabeth Pinkerton, and Hannah and Matthew Thornton, along with the remains of two red wax seals.
Partially printed DS as Justice of the Peace, "Mathew Thornton," 1p, 6.75 x 12.25 in., "Province of New-Hampshire." October 17, 1769. Document records the receipt of "five pound two Shillings," from the estate of the late Archibald McMurphy to (his son) George McMurphy of Londonderry, for which George McMurphy releases his rights to his father's estate. Document includes George McMurphy's signature and partial red wax seal at lower right, with Thornton's signature at bottom.
Though originally from Limerick, Ireland, Matthew Thornton solidified his role in United States history by becoming one of only three delegates from New Hampshire to sign the Declaration of Independence. Having immigrated to North America as a small child, Thornton did not become immediately involved in the politics of the region. As he grew up, he set his sights on becoming a doctor, and opened his own practice in Londonderry, New Hampshire in 1740. He served as surgeon to the New Hampshire troops in the 1945 Siege of Louisbourg, during what became known as King George's War. Thereafter, Thornton held royal commissions as justice of the peace and colonel of militia, and was elected to represent Londonderry in the New Hampshire Legislature in 1758.
As colonial tensions heated up, so too did Thornton's political involvement. He was elected to the New Hampshire Provisional Congress in 1775, serving as that body's president and as chairman of the committee of safety. Thornton also helped make New Hampshire the first colony to design a government independent of Britain by drafting what would become the first state constitution. Thornton was elected to the Continental Congress in September 1776, and though he arrived in Philadelphia nearly three months after the formal signing of the Declaration of Independence, he was allowed to sign the document on behalf of New Hampshire. While this act became Thornton's most enduring legacy, he continued contributing to the political development of New Hampshire and the nascent nation in numerous capacities, including as judge of the superior court of New Hampshire from 1776-1782. After enjoying more than a decade of retirement from politics in Merrimack, New Hampshire, Thornton died in 1803 at the age of 89.
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Lot of 3. Charles Carroll of Carrollton (1737-1832). Representative to the Continental Congress from Maryland and signer of the Declaration of Independence (and its longest surviving signer). He also became Maryland's first US Senator. ALS, "Ch. Carroll of Carrollton," 1p, 7.875 x 9.75 in., Baltimore, MD. May 6, 1829. Letter acknowledging receipt of previous correspondence concerning an account balance. Letter originally accompanied by a check from Carroll for fifty dollars, with instructions to "please. . . furnish [him] with the legal costs. . . also with your account of legal services."
Lot completed by The New-York Mirror: A Weekly Journal, Devoted to Literature and the Fine Arts. New York, NY: G.P. Morris, August 4 1832. Vol. 10, No. 5. 8pp, 10.38 x 13.125 in. Front page with biographical feature of Charles Carroll, with illustration. Also with engraving of Carroll by Asher B. Durand (American, 1796-1886) after a portrait by Chester (Charles) Harding, one of nineteen prints Durand engraved for Herring and Longacre's "National Portrait Gallery of Distinguished Americans," published in 1835, with facsimile of Carroll's signature.
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The Boston Evening Post. Boston, MA: August 26, 1765. No. 1563. 4pp, 9.5 x 15.75 in.
A Colonial American newspaper printed during the same year as the passage of the Stamp Act in the British American Colonies. This issue contains a lengthy, detailed front page essay comprised of two columns of text explaining and supporting the British Mercantile System of Economics as it relates to the British American Colonies. This Mercantile System would ultimately lead to the Revolutionary War.
Mercantilism, a national economic policy designed to maximize the exports of a nation, dominated modernized parts of Europe from the 16th to 18th centuries. British mercantilism, with respect to its colonies, meant that the government and the merchants became partners with the goal of increasing political power and private wealth to the exclusion of other empires. It taught that trade was a zero-sum game, with one country's gain equivalent to a loss sustained by the trading partner. Overall, however, mercantilist policies had a positive impact on Britain, helping turn it into the world's dominant trader and global hegemon.
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The Pennsylvania Chronicle, and Universal Advertiser. Philadelphia, PA: William Goddard, Printer. October 26-November 2, 1767. Vol. I. No. 41. 4pp, 11.5 x 18.75 in.
A Colonial American newspaper containing an inside page report of the marriage of Benjamin Franklin and Deborah Read's only daughter, Sarah "Sally" Franklin, to Richard Bache (page two, column three).
Sarah "Sally" Franklin Bache (1743-1808) was a leader in relief work during the Revolutionary War and frequently served as her father's political hostess, as her mother had done before her death in 1774. She raised money for the Continental Army and is known for her involvement in the Ladies Association of Philadelphia.
The Pennsylvania Chronicle, and Universal Advertiser. Philadelphia, PA: William Goddard, Printer. December 7-December 14, 1767. Vol. I. No. 48. 4pp, 11.5 x 18.75 in.
This handsome Colonial American newspaper contains a complete front page printing of the first printing in any form of Letter III in the series of John Dickinson's famous pre-Revolutionary War essays entitled "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania to the Inhabitants of the American Colonies."
The "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" consist of a series of twelve essays first published in the Pennsylvania Chronicle between 1767-1768 and authored by John Dickinson (1732-1808), who was not so much a typical "farmer," but rather a wealthy plantation owner and lawyer. The "Letters" have been credited with uniting the American colonists in opposition to the Townshend Acts and advancing a popular logic for self-governance that helped lead to the American Revolution. Although his "Letters" earned him the nickname "The Penman of the Revolution," Dickinson was much more than that, serving as a delegate to the First and Second Continental Congress and as a militia officer in the Revolution. He also drafted the Articles of Confederation, under which he served as President (Governor) of Delaware and Pennsylvania. In addition, Dickinson helped draft the US Constitution, which he rallied support for with another series of essays under the pen name "Fabius," and wrote the majority of the Delaware Constitution of 1792.
Massachusetts Gazette and the Boston Weekly News-Letter. Boston, MA: May 17, 1770. No. 3476. 4pp, 9.5 x 15.5 in.
Printed just two months after the Boston Massacre, this Colonial American newspaper contains a front page report that 100,000 slaves were purchased in Africa by Europeans and that those slaves were valued at 1.5 million British Pounds Sterling. Inside page reports of the British Government agreeing to levy a tax on tea sent to the American Colonies, a cause of the Boston Tea Party three years later, and a mention of Dr. Joseph Warren, who would be killed at the Battle of Bunker Hill in 1775, are also included.
Rivington's New-York Gazeteer; or the Connecticut, Hudson's River, New-Jersey, and Quebec Weekly Advertiser. New York, NY: James Rivington, April 7, 1774. No. 51. 4pp, 11.25 x 18.25 in.
Exquisitely rare Colonial-era newspaper printed a year before the start of the Revolutionary War. This issue contains local New York City coverage of the British North American Colonies' reaction to the Intolerable Acts, the punitive legal measures implemented in 1774 by the British Government following the Boston Tea Party. Specifically, the issue contains coverage of the East India Tea Ship headed to New York City being forced to return to England without unloading its cargo of tea in New York. The Boston Tea Party and the Philadelphia Tea Party, both of which took place in late 1773, are also mentioned.
Rivington's New-York Gazeteer; or the Connecticut, Hudson's River, New-Jersey, and Quebec Weekly Advertiser. New York, NY: James Rivington, October 12, 1775. No. 130. 4pp, 11.25 x 18.25 in.
Rare American newspaper printed just six months after the start of the Revolutionary War. This issue contains local New York City coverage of the events occurring during the first phase of the war, including mention of the Battles of Lexington and Concord, the arrest of Dr. Benjamin Church as a British spy, and the appointment of General William Howe as the Commander in Chief of the British forces.
Dr. Benjamin Church (1734-1778) served as the "Chief Physician & Director General" of the Medical Service of the Continental Army from July 27, 1775 to October 17, 1775. He was also actively involved in Boston's Sons of Liberty movement prior to the war. However, early in the Revolutionary War, Church was sending secret information to the British commander, General Thomas Gage, and when one of his letters into Boston was intercepted, he was tried and convicted of "communicating with the enemy."
British Army officer William Howe rose to become Commander in Chief of British forces during the Revolutionary War. He was sent to North America in early 1775, arriving in May, just after the war broke out. Howe led British troops to a costly victory at the Battle of Bunker Hill and subsequently took command of all British forces in America from Thomas Gage in September of that year.
Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser. Philadelphia, PA: Hall and Sellers, Printers, October 24, 1781. No. 580. 4pp, 10 x 16.25 in.
Very first "breaking news" report announcing the surrender of British General Charles Cornwallis and his entire army to George Washington at Yorktown, VA. The newspaper contains a half column of detailed news describing the Siege of Yorktown by American forces and a notice (in slightly larger type face) that reads: "...Early on Monday morning an express arrived in town, with the agreeable and very important intelligence of Lord Cornwallis and his army having surrendered on the 17th inst. We impatiently wait arrival of his excellency George Washington's dispatches, particularizing this most interesting event..." This surrender marked the end of the Revolutionary War in practical terms and secured the independence of the United States from Great Britain.
The issue also contains a lengthy, detailed letter signed in type by Francis Marion, "The Swamp Fox," and his long report of the movements of his men to the Battle of Eutaw Springs in South Carolina.
Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser. Philadelphia, PA: Hall and Sellers, Printers, November 7, 1781. No. 2682. 4pp, 10 x 16.25 in.
This issue features two inside pages (comprised of five columns of text) listing in great detail the men and material surrendered by General Charles Cornwallis to George Washington at the Battle of Yorktown, VA, which marked the end of the Revolutionary War, securing the United States' independence from Great Britain.
Wooden relic, lg. 11 in., wd. 3.125 in., with mounted silver presentation plaque engraved, "From a gunboat / of / General Arnolds / sunk in Lake Champlain / During the American Revolution / Presented by / Mrs John E. Milholland / 1900."
One of the first naval battles of the Revolutionary War, the Battle of Valcour Island took place on October 11, 1776. Though the American forces, led by Commander Benedict Arnold, were overpowered by the superior British fleet, they did succeed in slowing the British advance to the upper Hudson River Valley. Throughout the course of the battle, most of the American ships were captured or destroyed, a fact recorded in a recently discovered manuscript titled "A Return of the fleet belonging to the United States of America on Lake Champlain under the Command of Brigadier General Arnold…" and dated October 22, 1776 at Ticonderoga. The document lists only two ships, the Spitfire and the Philadelphia, as having been sunk during the battle, meaning that the relic featured in this lot likely came from one of those two ships.
John Elmer Milholland (1860-1925), noted businessman, journalist, and sponsor of civil rights activists and groups, was known for helping to organize the Constitution League, a forerunner to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and for serving as the NAACP's first treasurer. He married Jean Torry Milholland (1863-1939, also referred to as "Mrs. John E. Milholland"), a political activist in her own right, and together they had three children including Inez Milholland Boissevain (1886-1916), who became famous for her key role as a suffragist and for her work as an advocate for other oppressed groups around the world.
Commemorative medal in copper, 48 mm. dia., created at the behest of Benjamin Franklin in honor of the American victory at Yorktown, engraved by French sculptor Augustin Dupré and struck at the Paris Mint, 1782. Obverse with legend "LIBERTAS AMERICANA" and date "4 JUIL. 1776" surrounding depiction of the head of Liberty, facing left, with flowing hair, and a liberty cap to the right. Reverse features legend "NON SINE DIIS ANIMOSUS INFANS," (roughly, "The infant is not bold without divine aid,") along with dates October 17, 1777 and October 19, 1781 (American victories at Saratoga and Yorktown, respectively) featured above and below detailed depiction of an infant Hercules, strangling two serpents while the fierce goddess Minerva defends him from a pouncing lioness with a spear and shield decorated in fleurs-de-lis. In this depiction, Hercules and the serpents are meant to represent the fledgling United States and the British armies under Burgoyne and Cornwallis, while Minerva represents France and the lioness represents Great Britain.
The Libertas Americana medal was conceptualized by Benjamin Franklin, who was tasked with designing a monument to honor the important American victory at Yorktown while he was serving as US minister to France. Franklin proposed a design for a medal instead, detailing his idea in a March 1782 letter to Robert Livingston. In the letter he describes a depiction of an infant Hercules strangling two serpents, with Minerva sitting by as his nurse. Though the medal's eventual reverse design was a more active and aggressive portrayal of Hercules and Minerva, with a lioness added to represent Britain, Franklin's original message was clearly conveyed. The iconography in the medal's obverse inspired an array of early United States coin designs.
Hand-colored engraving, 8.125 x 14.5 in. (sight, including margins), framed, 10.5 x 16.75 in. A View of Col. Johnson's Engagement with the Savages (Commanded by Tecumseh) near the Moravian Town, October 5, 1812. Abel Bowen, 1828.
A dramatic engraving portraying the battle between American forces under the command of Colonel Richard M. Johnson and American Indians under the command of Tecumseh, who were allied with the British. Detailed action is presented at center, with Johnson on horseback engaged with an Indian wielding a tomahawk, an American soldier engaging with an Indian, and an Indian in the act of scalping a fallen soldier. Tecumseh is shown standing in the foreground, at the far right. Significant elements of the scene are numbered and described in a corresponding key printed below.
Axe, 13.5 in. overall length, with 5.5 in long iron head. Inked label reads "Battle of Tippecanoe/ Nov. 7, 1811."
Lot of 10 letters spanning 1821-1835, most related to the military career of War of 1812 veteran Captain John C. Culbertson (1791-1868). Lot includes signatures of the future President Zachary Taylor as well as antebellum statesman and political firebrand John C. Calhoun.
John Craighead Culbertson was born in Pennsylvania in 1791. Just months prior to the start of the War of 1812 Culbertson enlisted, and he went on to serve during the war with the 22nd Infantry Regiment under the command of fellow Pennsylvanian Colonel Hugh Brady. During the War of 1812, the 22nd participated in several prominent engagements including the Battles of Chippawa and Battle of Lundy's Lane. It was during these battles that Culbertson was wounded and earned his reputation as a competent and meritorious soldier. The letters in this archive focus on the years following the war during which the army downsized and many veterans were let go from the service. Culbertson was one of the soldiers who lost his position after he was discharged on June 1, 1821.
The documents show that Culbertson moved quickly after his discharge to mobilize the efforts of powerful friends, all of whom were current or former military officers, to write to the War Department on his behalf and help him secure a new position. The earliest letter in the collection dates from June 6, 1821, and is written by Jonathan Kearsley, who at the time held the position of Receiver of Public Monies in Detroit. Kearsley writes, in part: "It gives me pleasure to comply with your letter of yesterday...I have no hesitation in declaring my belief that from 1812, when you entered the military service of our country as an Ensign to the present time I have never known or heard of any imputation against your character as a gentleman or an officer - on the contrary, during the war, when we served in the same division of the army, I do know that at all times you were held in the highest estimation by Col. Brady and others your superiors in the, then, 22d Regt. of Infy...." Additional letters of support for Culbertson's reinstatement come from the following: two letters (copies) from War of 1812 veteran Lewis Cass, written while serving as 2nd Territorial Governor of Michigan, and submitted to Major General Jacob Brown and Secretary of War John C. Calhoun; one letter written by Lt. Col. William Lawrence, 2nd Infantry Regiment, to General Thomas S. Jesup; two letters (copies) from War of 1812 hero Colonel Hugh Brady, written while serving in Sackets Harbor as Colonel of the 2nd Infantry Regiment, and submitted to Major General Jacob Brown and Secretary of War John C. Calhoun. In his letter to Secretary Calhoun, Colonel Brady notes that Culbertson "was in the advance at the taking of Fort George, and in the affair of Stormy Creek was gallantly wounded under Genl. Scott at Chippawa and fought with credit at the battle of the falls. I write my wishes with Capt. Culbertson; that his pretentions and honorable services be weighed in the event of a vacancy occurring of his rank."
Capt. Culbertson's own entreaty for reinstatement and request for position as a sutler is included in the archive as well. He writes on July 29, 1821, to his friend Colonel George Gibson, Commissary General of Subsistence, stating that he has applied personally to Secretary of War Calhoun for an appointment to the sutler position with the Regiment at Baton Rouge, and asking Gibson to follow-up with Calhoun about the appointment. Culbertson's wish was granted as he was appointed sutler to the 1st Infantry in Baton Rouge on August 1821. Interestingly, in an April 1822 letter written by a secretary but signed "J. C. Calhoun," the Secretary of War informs Culbertson that he desires the sutler to take an appointment with a different Battalion stationed at a remote outpost on the Red River.
Culbertson did eventually leave Baton Rouge, but he remained with the 1st Infantry and accompanied the troops to the Upper Missouri. He later joined in the 1825 Yellowstone Expedition under the command of Gen. Henry Atkinson before again assuming the position of sutler to the 1st Infantry stationed then at Fort Snelling (Michigan Territory/present-day Minnesota). The final two letters in the collection are written in 1828 and 1835 respectively. The former letter is addressed to Capt. Culbertson at St. Louis, MO, and was written by Col. Zachary Taylor, on July 13, 1835. Taylor, who at the time was serving as commander of Fort Snelling, seeks Culbertson's assistance with shipping items to his plantation in Louisiana. While the letter does not indicate how the two were acquainted, it is possible that they met while Culbertson served as sutler in Baton Rouge and Taylor was stationed there. The 1835 letter is an interesting inquiry from Roger Jones, Adjutant General US Army. Addressed to "Captain John Culbertson / Sutler to Ft. Snelling / Cincinnati / Ohio," Adj. Genl. Jones inquires as to how and why the sutler for Fort Snelling is residing in Cincinnati. The answer to this question remains unclear, however, Culbertson spent the remainder of his life in Cincinnati.
Lot of 27 documents, both manuscript and partially printed, relating to the Connecticut Land Company, its shareholders, and other land transactions including receipts, account sheets, agreements, reports, promissory notes, and correspondence, in the Connecticut Western Reserve, 1804-1845. Many of these documents are signed by important pioneers, surveyors, legislators, and civic officials of early Northeast Ohio, as well as veterans of the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812.
The Connecticut Land Company was formed on September 5, 1795 by a group of investors who were authorized by the state to purchase and resell the territory in Northeast Ohio known as the Connecticut Western Reserve. Connecticut was one of several states with claims to land in this region, which was set aside for citizens whose homes had been destroyed during the American Revolution. Connecticut sold the eastern portion of the Reserve to the Connecticut Land Company for $1.2 million, which was allocated for Connecticut’s public education system. The company organized a group of surveyors to divide the land into townships, and Moses Cleaveland led the first of these survey parties to the Reserve in 1796. Despite its proximity to Lake Erie, settlers were reluctant to purchase the land because of concerns over the legality of titles and governance. Further, the company made no provisions for the future development of the land, leaving the organization of schools, churches, and other amenities up to the buyers. Plagued by low sales figures and general mismanagement, the Connecticut Land Company was dissolved on January 5, 1809, and the remaining land was divided among the investors. The Western Reserve was finally settled after the War of 1812, reigniting interest in the purchase of land in the region.
Documents include those signed by:
Austin, Calvin (1762-1819). Land agent for the Connecticut Land Company and later judge of the Western Reserve and co-founder of the Western Reserve Bank (1811). ALS, “Calvin Austin,” 2pp of text with additional 2pp of calculations and notes on blank leaves, 15 x 9.5 in., Warren, OH. April 15, 1815. Addressed to Joseph W. Brown. Request to process the release of four lots of land in the Western Reserve.
Beers, Seth Preston (1781-1863). Connecticut lawyer and politician, who served as the state’s attorney general, senator, and Speaker of the State House of Representatives. Beers also held the position of Commissioner of the Connecticut School Fund for twenty-five years. ALS, “S.P. Beers,” 1p, 15.5 x 12.25 in., Litchfield, CT. October 5, 1827. Addressed to Isaac Spencer, State Treasurer of Connecticut (1818-1835). Content related to the arrival of General Simon Perkins in Hartford and the anticipated departure of Captain Easterbrook for the West.
Bronson, Levi (1765-1824), Ralph Granger (1790-1867), Calvin Pease (1776-1839), and Simon Perkins (1771-1844). Early Ohio settlers with illustrious political, entrepreneurial, and/or military careers. Handwritten indenture between Abraham Fowls of Ohio and Andrew Kingsbury, State Treasurer of Connecticut (1794-1818), signed as witnesses, 2pp (partial), 9.675 x 8 in., Columbia Township, OH. August 8, 1814. Fowls acknowledges $244 received of Kingsbury relating to 100 acres of land in Plumfield Township. On verso, Fowls’s wife, Rachael Ana Fowls, releases her Right of Dower, or her interests in the land previously owned by her husband.
Case, Leonard, Sr. (1786-1864). Prominent politician, businessman, and philanthropist.
· Partially printed DS as agent with the Connecticut Land Bank, where Case worked for twenty-eight years, “Leonard Case,” 1p with manuscript notations on verso, 10.5 x 9.25 in. April 1, 1833. Article of Agreement between Case and Alfred Minns, concerning the purchase of land in the Connecticut Western Reserve for $318.60, with annual interest. Verso inscriptions indicate that the land and remaining balance were twice transferred, with the final payment received on October 23, 1841.
· Manuscript account sheet, signed “Leonard Case,” as agent with the Connecticut Land Bank, recording payments made to the Connecticut School Fund against land purchased by W. Robinson. 1p, 7.75 x 9.625 in., Cleveland, OH. December 3, 1834.
· Partially printed DS, “Leonard Case, agent,” brokering the sale of 200 acres of land in Cuyahoga county to John Baldwin, an educator who would later establish Baldwin Institute (later Baldwin University) in Berea, OH, for $985.00. Notations and signatures on verso record payments received by both Case and Seth Preston Beers.
Kelley, Daniel (1755-1831). President of the Village of Cleveland (1816-1819) and co-incorporator of a company that constructed the first pier at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River (1816). Receipt, “Daniel Kelley,” 1p, 7.75 x 4.25 in., “Cleaveland Cuy. Co.” November 6, 1827. Acknowledges receipt of four dollars by Leonard Case from Daniel Tilden for a parcel of land.
Kingsbury, Andrew (1759-1837). Revolutionary War veteran and State Treasurer of Connecticut (1794-1818). Manuscript account sheet, 1p with signed note (“AK”) on inside of blank leaves, 14.25 x 12 in., Hartford, CT. April 2, 1816. Lists Connecticut Reserve deeds to be delivered to Simon Perkins. In the note, Kingsbury requests that the deed be recorded “in the proper offices” and then returned to him “by some safe person.”
Kirtland, Turhand (1755-1844). Revolutionary War veteran and Ohio Territory pioneer and surveyor, responsible for laying out the land of the Western Reserve for the Connecticut Land Company. Appointed Judge of Trumbull County in 1800. Handwritten certificate of land value, signed “Turhand Kirtland,” 1p, 8.875 x 9.5 in., “Poland, County of Trumbull, State of Ohio.” May 13, 1819.
Perkins, Simon (177-1844). Settler, surveyor, and businessman in the Western Reserve. Brigadier-general during the War of 1812 and co-founder of the city of Akron (1825). President of the Western Reserve Bank and member of the Ohio Board of Canal Commissioners, where he worked to raise funds for canal building and was responsible in part for the planning of the Erie Canal. ALS, “Simon Perkins,” 1p, 7.5 x 9.75 in. July 13, 1820. Addressed to Andrew Kingsbury.
Stow, Joshua (1762-1842). Founder of Stow, Ohio and original shareholder in the Connecticut Land Company. Member of Moses Cleaveland’s survey team in the Western Reserve and composer of Article Seven of the Connecticut state constitution.
· Partially printed DS, “J. Stow,” 1p with verso notations, 7.5 x 12.25 in., “Cleaveland, Ohio.” July 1825. Articles of Agreement between Stow and Stephen Robinson of Bedford, Ohio concerning the sale of fifty acres for $368.69, which shall be allocated “for the use and benefit of the School Fund of said state of Connecticut.” Seth Preston Beers has signed and dated the verso, as Commissioner of the Connecticut School Fund.
· Partially printed DS, “J. Stow,” 1p with verso inscription, 7.75 x 12.25 in. July 8, 1825. Articles of Agreement between Stow and John Cockran of Stow, Ohio concerning the sale of thirty-two acres for 167.00. Simon Perkins has signed and dated the reverse for the state of Connecticut, which would oversee the land until Cockran supplied the bond as described in the initial agreement.
Sixth plate daguerreotype of Winfield Scott housed in an early leatherette case stamped "M.B. Brady." Believed to be one of the earliest known photographs of Scott, "The Grand Old Man of the Army," taken ca 1844.
Winfield Scott (1786-1866) is regarded as one of the most important military figures in early American History. He served prominent roles in the War of 1812, Black Hawk War, Mexican War, and the early parts of the Civil War. Scott proposed the "Anaconda Plan" that would allow Union troops to reclaim the Confederacy by using naval and army forces to surround the South. In 1852, he won the presidential nomination for the Whig Party, though he ultimately lost to Democrat Franklin Pierce. In 1855, he was the first man to be given the title of "Lieutenant General" since George Washington.
Provenance: Meserve; Reinhardt Collection; consigned by a private collector.
An extraordinary group of approx. 45 items reflecting the Civil War service of Major Michael Schmitt (1821-1893) of the little known New York Independent Battalion of Infantry, Enfant Perdus (aka "Lost Children," aka "German Legion").
The centerpiece of the comprehensive collection - particularly to image collectors - is the fine early war full plate ambrotype of Schmitt wearing the officer's version of the battalion's distinctive French inspired chasseur uniform. The image is housed under a gold mat in a decorative hanging frame, 11.5 x 13.5 in.
Photographed in the field sometime in 1863 are a pair of companion outdoor albumen photographs, each approx. 4.25 x 7 in., on 6.5 x 8.75 in. mount, credited to "Haus & Peale, Morris Island & Hilton Head," showing the major casually posed with fellow soldiers in a sparse camp scene during the siege of Charleston.
Importantly, Schmitt's nearly complete set of uniform insignia (sans buttons) comprising matched soldier straps for captain and major, embroidered hat eagle and braided hat cord with tassels, along with a proprietary wreath devise are framed under glass with captions.
An anecdotal mixture of approx. 30 documents, letters, and imprints is highlighted by Schmitt's French Army "Certificat de Bonne Conduite" dated December 31, 1848, attesting to his former service in the 4th Regiment of Dragoons. A New York State Militia document appointing Schmitt a private in Co. K of the Gardes Lafayette, dated September 4, 1851 is present, as well as Schmitt's original New York state captain's commission dated May 7, 1862, 14.75 x 17.75 in. including frame. Five single page manuscript orders reflecting the drudgery of army routine during Charleston operations are also included among other war-date documents.
An array of personal items include a liquor flask, a short brass telescope and case, a single volume of Casey's Tactics along with the captain's company day book containing a roster and inked notations under tattered leather fold-over cover.
Organized in New York City in April 1862, the battalion was present during the Peninsula Campaign as garrison troops but was not otherwise engaged. Les Enfant Perdus was then detached from the Army of the Potomac and assigned to the Department of North Carolina as part of the 18th Corps. The battalion saw very limited action through January 1863 when once more, the unit was shifted to the Department of the South, now assigned to an active theater of operations joining in the siege of Charleston undertaken by the 10 Corps. Beginning in July 1863 the battalion participated in the attack on outlying Morris Island (of Glory fame) followed by successive siege operations against the Confederate defenders of Fort Wagner and Fort Gregg, then the bombardment of Fort Sumter and Charleston in combined operations with the Navy. During the summer and into the late fall, the Enfant Perdus sustained nine men killed and mortally wounded and fifteen lesser wounded. The battalion much reduced by sickness served briefly at Hilton Head before the remnants were absorbed into the 47th New York Infantry on January 30, 1864 ceasing to exist as a separate unit. Michael Schmitt had joined the battalion as captain, Company F, on April 7, 1862, was promoted to major (commanding) on May 1, 1863, and mustered out as supernumerary on February 5, 1864 upon consolidation.
Very little is known of Schmitt's post-war activities. An Alsatian by birth, the immigrant is shown in the 1875 New York Census as married with three teenage children living in the Buffalo area. The 1885 New York Census has him working as a lead glazier. No record of a military pension application could be found. Michael Schmitt was 72 when he died in Rochester, New York on April 6, 1893. He was interred in Rochester's Holy Sepulchre Cemetery (Section D, Grave 29L).
Lot of more than 30 items, including photographs, documents, field binoculars, hand sewn textiles, and more.
William Henry Keeling (1835-1920), Civil War veteran and friend to Western Indian tribes, was born in 1835 to Henry Keeling and Nancy Hill Keeling. Keeling's father left the family while William was still a young child, but returned for him in 1854 and the pair removed to Illinois. In April 1855 Keeling entered the employ of the United States Government as a member of a surveying corps at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. He went on to hold various jobs in the ensuing years in Iowa, Louisiana, and Texas. On September 16, 1861, Keeling enlisted as a private in the 13th US Infantry at Dubuque, Iowa, and was mustered into Co. H. He would remain with the 13th throughout the war, serving on General William Tecumseh Sherman's staff and earning a "First at Vicksburg" badge as one of the first few officers of Sherman's headquarters to cross the ramparts at the capture of that city. Sherman and Keeling would continue their friendship in the decades following the war.
Following the Civil War Keeling remained in the army returning to Ft. Leavenworth. He then served as both quartermaster and commissary during the 1866 building of Camp Cooke, the first US Army outpost in Montana Territory. It was in Montana that, despite ongoing tensions in the area between settlers and American Indians, Keeling earned a reputation among the American Indians as a trustworthy and honorable man. The Piegan referred to him as "The man who shakes hands and gives us bread and meat."
Keeling resigned from the army on June 30, 1867, having attained the rank of 1st lieutenant. He returned to civilian life where he continued his business pursuits in mercantile and merchandising endeavors. He was a well-respected member of the community and served three-times as mayor of Falls City, Nebraska. Keeling married three times, outliving his first two wives, and was survived by his third wife upon his death on March 6, 1920, in Falls City.
The Keeling archive is highlighted by a wonderful assortment of photographs. William H. Keeling is represented in a striking sixth plate ruby ambrotype featuring a uniformed Keeling, as well as in two war-date CDVs and a post-war CDV identified on verso as "W H Keeling about 1865." A later, undated oval portrait of Keeling on black mount is accompanied by an oval portrait of engraving of Sherman on black mount. Nine additional CDVs feature Sherman, Grant, Hood, and several unidentified soldiers and civilians, one of whom is possibly a Keeling relative. There are four mounted albumen photographs including two images measuring approximately 9.5 x 7.25 in. both of which are inscribed at lower left on mount recto "Class in Infantry School at Ft. Leavenworth / Prior to 1886." The smaller albumen photographs measure approximately 6.5 x 4.5 in. and feature soldiers of the 13th Infantry including Keeling, with each individual in the photograph identified on bottom of mount recto. Rounding out the photography are ninth plate ambrotype and tintype portraits of an unidentified woman; a ninth plate tintype of an infant; a small, mounted silver gelatin photograph of two men identified on verso as Nell Hershey and Jim Pickett in camp 1898; and a snapshot of a dog inscribed "Jingo."
Civil War-era field glasses/binoculars accompany the photographs. Manufactured ca 1860, marked along the eyepieces "Bardou & Son / Paris" and on the bridge "U S Army / Signal Glass," approx 55mm (2.5 in) lenses, 9 inches fully extended, main brass body covered in worn leather which on one side is manually attached with non-professional adhesive tape. One eyepiece has an indentation on brass surrounding lenses. Binoculars are housed n a hardshell leather case which is missing its strap, lid no longer affixed to case. Optics and rain/dust shields all in working order.
A varied assortment of items spanning Keeling's career constitute the remainder of the collection. These include: woven purse with hand beaded ornamentation including the letter "K" measuring approx. 2.5 x 5.25 in.; menu from "Keeling's, Thanksgiving 1885 / Fort Leavenworth"; Keeling's recollections about General Ulysses S. Grant, written to his daughter Mrs. Fred B. Taylor of Hardin, Montana, on Feb 12, 1920, just weeks before Keeling's death; Mardi Gras Ball invitation addressed to "Maj. W. H. Keeling" by the Krewe of Rex, February 10, 1880; 9.5 x 4.5 in. pencil and watercolor image of a young child dressed in Asian clothing and holding a long scroll of some sort, signed "W. Keeling"; metal coin, 1 in. diameter, inscribed "W. H. K. / 50"; "The Army Song Book: Compiled by an Officer of the United States Army," Chicago: Chicago Publishing Company, 1882, "Gracie Keeling / 1882" inscribed in pencil in interior; bag of approximately 20 buttons; carved wooden implement with movable leaf motif, exact purpose unknown, possibly a bookmark; brown and navy blue fabric shawl measuring approx. 59 x 59 in.; hand-sewn quilt measuring approx. 61 x 65 in., featuring natural and American Indian motifs as well as the initials "W H K." '
Two items in the collection appear to have been family pieces added to Keeling's archive at a later date. These include a Chimayo weaving measuring approx 23 x 9.75 in., likely produced for tourists ca 1940-1960s, as well as a Plains Indian loom beaded belt with small figurines at its ends, measuring approx 40.75 in., post-1950.
Quarter plate tintype of a triple-armed state recruit, possibly from Massachusetts, housed in a full pressed paper case. A Sheffield-style knife, M1842 musket, and belted M1849 Colt Pocket Pistol are clearly visible, given the remarkable sharpness of the image. The man wears an early war nine-button frock coat and state issue kepi, of a different color than that of the uniform coat. Around his waist is an impromptu Rifleman's belt with a buckle instead of a plate.
Quarter plate tintype of an unidentified private wearing a slouch hat with brass infantry bugle devise. The subject displays a Colt Navy pistol, and slung across his shoulder is what appears to be a tarred canvas haversack, a fairly rare piece of equipage. Housed in full, pressed paper case.
Lot of 3 quarter plate tintypes presenting members of the Union army from early in the Civil War, including a standing soldier with an 1861 Springfield rifle and early bayonet scabbard. He wears a forage cap and enlisted frock coat and poses before a painted back drop of a camp scene. Housed in thermoplastic case bearing the design of "The Music Lesson" [K-37]. Also with a portrait of a private standing with a conversion musket, with uniform accoutrements befitting of his rank, housed in a pressed paper case with separation at spine. Lot completed by an image of a seated soldier armed with an Enfield rifle and wearing a full-length frock coat with standard accoutrements and dark trousers, housed in a full pressed paper case.
Sixth plate tintype of a double-armed civilian dandy, brandishing both a Colt Pocket Pistol and a Bowie knife. Clad in a two-tone hat and printed tie, he smiles somewhat mischievously for the portrait. Housed in a full pressed paper case.
Lot of 5 tintypes, including one sixth plate and four ninth plate images of Jonas Shattuck, Company B, Massachusetts 26th Infantry. Three tintypes show Shattuck in uniform, including the sixth plate, in which he stands in partial profile, wearing a kepi and overcoat, the buttons lightly tinted gold. Housed in half case with period paper label, which reads, "Shattuck uniform"; ninth plate showing Shattuck wearing a wide-brimmed hat and what looks to be the same overcoat, housed in full case; and ninth plate of Shattuck wearing a forage cap and frock coat with shoulder scales, seated with a trumpet in hand, housed in half case. Accompanied by a pair of ninth plate tintypes of Shattuck in civilian clothing, possibly from the same sitting, each in full case. A period inked note that reads "Jonas Shattuck / B. 1820 - D. 1890 / Probably about War Time" is pinned to one of the cases.
At the age of 40, Pepperell, MA, resident and cordwainer Jonas Shattuck (1820-1890) enlisted as a private in September 1861 and mustered into Company B, 26th Massachusetts Infantry, the following month. After reenlisting in February 1864, Shattuck mustered out at Savannah, GA in August 1865. While serving with the 26th Massachusetts Infantry, Shattuck likely saw action at La Fourche Crossing, Deep Bottom, Winchester, Fisher's Hill, and Cedar Creek.
Sixth plate tintype of a possible American Indian subject wearing a severe expression, an enlisted frock coat, and what appears to be a civilian hat, with lips and cheeks lightly tinted pink. Housed in half pressed paper case.
Sixth plate tintype of a young standing zouave, armed with an Enfield rifle. The details of his uniform, including the blue-tinted sash and integral vest, suggest that he may be part of the 76th Pennsylvania Zouaves. Housed in geometric/scroll thermoplastic Union case in near excellent condition.
Lot of 3 sixth plate tintypes featuring armed Union soldiers. Includes portraits of an enlisted man posed with an 1849 Colt Pocket revolver, housed under mat and glass, and a double-armed soldier brandishing a Colt Army Model 1860 and rare 1860 Bacon Percussion Revolver, housed in full pressed paper case. Also with image of a standing soldier, wearing a private's frock coat, along with a non-commissioned officer's belt and cavalry saber, both of which are likely studio props, housed in a pressed paper case separated along spine.
Lot of 2 sixth plate tintypes, including uncased studio view of a young private wearing a Hardee hat with infantry adornment, seated and holding a musket. The subject's cheek's are lightly tinted pink and his infantry insignia, belt buckle, and buttons are highlighted in gold; and a portrait showing a private seated in a studio with a painted camp scene serving as the backdrop. The young subject wears a forage cap and displays his Enfield rifle.
Lot of approx. 53 items related to the 3rd Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, ca 1860s-1910s. Collection includes some distinct groupings of objects, such as of specific individuals and companies, as well as GAR paraphernalia.
The 3rd Ohio Volunteer Cavalry was organized at Camp Worcester (central northern Ohio) in the autumn of 1861. By the first of the year, they moved to Camp Dennison (near Cincinnati), then to Jeffersonville, Indiana. Next, the unit moved with Don Carlos Buell from Nashville to Savannah, Tennessee, seeing action at Lawrenceburg in April and participating in the siege of Corinth, Miss. for most of May. They spent some time guarding railroads, then went on an expedition through Alabama before pursuing Bragg out of Louisville for most of September. They fought at Perryville and pursued Morgan from Kentucky into Tennessee in mid-October. The following spring, the 3rd Ohio Cavalry joined Sherman's movement through the South, including Atlanta, Marietta, Kenesaw Mountain, Chattahoochie River Bridge, and Chickamauga. A large number of men veteranized in January 1864 and went home for 30 days. On the move for much of the duration of 1864, they finally mustered out in August 1865.
Among the photographs in this collection are several images associated with Co. I of the 3rd Ohio Veteran Volunteer Cavalry, including 16 gem-sized ferrotypes, one with typed label “Gus Ashley,” a gem-sized ferrotype on CDV mount with typed label “Capt. Henry Gaylord,” a CDV with “Surgeon Wm. B. Boyd” in pencil on verso, and an oval albumen on CDV mount, with “Mark McMaster” on verso. Notes in envelope taped to back of mount, with photocopy of unit history, photos of Dennis McMaster and Mrs. McMaster and note that there were four brothers in Co. I – Charles, Myron, Mark and Deck McMaster. Other photographs depict men from other companies, many of whom are identified.
A number of items are associated with Jacob Miller, Co. D, such as a shirt stud with Grand Army of the Republic seal, 5/8” diameter; Ohio Veteran’s Medal with Victory placing wreath on soldier’s head, “1861-1865” on plinth; verso with “The State of Ohio / to / Jacob Miller / Veteran / Co. D 3d. Regt. / Ohio Volunteer / Cavalry,” retaining original “cotter pins”; order for headstone for Jacob Miller (d. 25 July 1881); two discharge papers, 3 Jan. 1864 (expiration of term of regular service) and 4 August 1865 (end of war – expiration of veteran’s term).
GAR ribbon and other items belonging to Gaylord M. Saltzgaber, including a campaign ribbon with a photograph of an older gentleman in his GAR uniform, identified as “Gaylord M. Saltzgaber for Commander in Chief.” Also with a CDV of Saltzgaber while enlisted, as well as a delegate’s pin featuring an eagle at top with “58 TH” in shield on breast, “National Encampment / Grand Army / of the Republic” on next bar; “Boston Massachusetts / 1924” on second bar; “Gaylord M. Saltzgaber / Commander-in-Chief” on third bar; and “Representative” on fourth bar; medallion of Lincoln with “With Malice Toward None * With Charity for All*” around perimeter.
Other GAR ribbons, all of which are gold satin for the 3rd O.V.V. Cavalry, commemorate reunions held throughout Ohio, 1892-1916.
Also with History of the Service of the Third Ohio Veteran Volunteer Cavalry in the War for the Preservation of the Union from 1861-1865. Compiled by Sergeant Thomas Crofts. Toledo, OH: 1910. Brown cloth, gilt front and spine, 296pp.
Leather album, 5.5 x 6.5 in., comprised of 24 CDVs, mostly of Union generals. Subjects include (all credited to Anthony and or Brady unless otherwise noted): William S. Rosecrans; Frederick W. Lander; Samuel P. Heintzelman; Winfield Scott at West Point, with two cent revenue stamp on verso; George H. Thomas; John Gray Foster; Hugh Judson Kilpatrick; William F. Smith; Henry Halleck (no imprint); William S. Harney, in civilian clothing; John Ellis Wool (2); William B. Franklin; William F. Barry, by J.E. McLees, Philadelphia; Daniel Tyler; Nathaniel Banks; Franz Sigel, with applied paper label on verso from Guille & Alles, New York; Ambrose Burnside; Captain Henry C. Shumway, 7th Regiment, New York State Militia; Colonel Walter McChesney, 10th NY Infantry; Captain Thaddeus P. Mott, 3rd NY Artillery; Rear Admiral Andrew H. Foote; Admiral Hiram Paulding, by J. Gurney & Son, New York; and gentleman identified on mount verso as "R.R. Ecshleman, Captain Foster's Clerk."
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