Ledger, pages with red-line columns, three on the right, two on the left side of each page. Originally leather bound. Front board has only fragments of board present. Rear board has leather remaining. The ledger was cut along the bottom. It is now approx. 6.5 x 8 in. This has destroyed entries at the bottom of a few pages, especially at the beginning of the volume.
The ffep has the name Edward R. Yates, Mecklenburg Co., VA (a couple times) and the date 1784. However, the first entries are from Norfolk, 1775 and Northampton in 1776. There are a few entries from 1805 squeezed onto what was probably a blank page. About page 11 the entries from 1784 begin and are fairly continuous up to 1833. The early entries are in Pounds, Shillings, Pence. Accounts begin being kept in dollars in 1806.
The goods in the personal accounts are typical of a pioneer area - everything from building materials (boards, oyster shell for chimney construction, etc.) to alcohol (brandy, whiskey) to foodstuffs (corn, potatoes, lamb, oats) to cash crops such as cotton to materials to make other necessities. There are several account pages for Emanuel Lewis, noted as being a freeman. Mr. Lewis is buying leather various weights), cloth remnants for lining, shoe thread, and shoe lasts. He is getting account credits for shoes (although only names, not products, are recorded - D. Glover, Mr. Daris, Robt. Shanks, etc.). Mr. Lewis also has more personal accounts - bacon, beef, salt, corn, soap, brandy, wheat, brown sugar, vinegar, butter, etc. Jacob Fain is noted as a "man of coular," and also seems to be a cobbler. His first credit is for "making 1 pr. shoes for Jno. B."
Besides salt, whiskey, brown sugar and coffee, Ahab Overby is purchasing powder and shot.
Mrs. Elizabeth Twisdale has account credits for "making 2 shirts for S.B.," "3 fine waistcoats for boys," "3 pr. breaches" and "2 round coats."
The last pages keep track of other endeavors, especially horse breeding. "Bay mare Pigeon had a bay Horse Colt the 19th May 1830 got by Col. William Hunt, Horse Retrenchment." The following year, "Bay mare Pigeon had a Sorrel Mare Colt Folded [sic, foaled] 25th April 1831 and was got by Mr. Clacks Horse Canon." The following year she had a black Horse colt, also went to Mr. Clack. There are a number of other equine entries scattered over the back pages.
The third from last page is dated 1821 Feb. 25th. "Memoriam of Negroes know in the possession of Mrs. Tabitha Marshall Warren County, N.C." It is not clear why these are listed, but at one point the owner of this ledger is paid for his services in another estate. It is interesting that these are from the neighboring state. Mecklenburg County adjoins Granville, Vance and Warren Counties in North Carolina, with Warren being the easternmost of the group. Since we don't know exactly where Mr. Yates was operating within Mecklenburg County, this is as likely an area as any - somewhere in the southeastern part of the county. There may be other clues buried in these accounts.
Among the names of his customers are: Hanserd, Walls, Baskervill, Burwell, Jeffries,Dedman, Camp, Boyd, Montgomery, Love, Marable, Lewis, Russel, Saunders, Nelson, Dunn, Norman (Major Thomas), Blackwell, Grisham/Gresham, Recks, Mathis, Norman, Kelly, Burge, Dr. Charles Sturdivant, Hamilton, Twisdale, Hutchins, Field, Jinkins, Twitchell, Glover, Revan, and more. Spelling can vary throughout ledger.
Array ( [live_biddable] => [inquire] => [phone] => [phone_bid] => 0 [sold] => 1 [unsold] => [make_offer] => [estimate] => 1 [timer] => [current_bid] => [asking_bid] => [start_price] => [buy_it_now_price] => [bid_activity] => )
2.5 x 4.5 in., printed on one side. No. 1915. Proclamation note according to the act passed 4 April 1748. Generally the colonies suffered money shortages. There were also issues with multiple currencies being in circulation (British, French, Spanish, Holy Roman Empire, etc.). So many states passed laws proclaiming the value of certain denominations. This helped (to a degree) to stabilize currency values, but there was still a shortage and barter was a major means of exchange. Taxes were often paid with tobacco, deer skins or other commodities. Unfortunately, printing paper currencies encouraged counterfeiting, which then damaged confidence in these colonial issues. Other tricks were attempted - one of the most common right around the Revolution was to print leaves on the verso of paper money. This early colonial note, however, still has a blank verso. In North Carolina, these notes were intended to be withdrawn from circulation when they were turned in for taxes, so one finds docketing on the verso of some.
As was typical of early paper currency, this one is signed by several noted citizens: John Starkey (1697-1765), treasurer of the Southern district, attorney, JP, and more; Edward. Moseley (1682-1749), member of various assemblies and councils, court justice, and more, possibly one of North Carolina's most influential 18th century citizens; Samuel Swann (1704-1774), member of the state assembly, including speakership 1742-43. There is a fourth signature but it has faded so as to be illegible.
Verso with "Recd. Jas. Maney." Maney was a major in the King's militia and a JP. There is a second docket indicating a transfer of the note in what appears to be a business transaction.
Array ( [live_biddable] => [inquire] => [phone] => [phone_bid] => 0 [sold] => 1 [unsold] => [make_offer] => [estimate] => 1 [timer] => [current_bid] => [asking_bid] => [start_price] => [buy_it_now_price] => [bid_activity] => )
Lot of 2:
Continental currency note, 3.5 x 2.625 in. Issued by Congress January 14, 1779 in the amount of sixty dollars, signed by "J. Leacock" and "N. Donnell." With serial number ("No. 167769") printed in upper left and emblem of a globe encircled with motto from Psalm 97 at center: "Deus Regnat Exultet Terra" (God reigns, let the earth rejoice). Verso with print of a willow leaf and hemlock sprig, and "Printed by HALL and / SELLERS. 1779" at bottom.
One private company note with dual-denomination designation, 3.25 x 2.5 in. Printed by R. Aitken & Son for Delaware & Schuylkill Canal Navigation, Philadelphia, PA, 1793. With ornamental border, embossed company seal, and serial number (“No. 165”). The amount of four dollars, in the denomination of “FOUR hundred CENTS” is payable to the order of “Wm. Jouett[?],” whose endorsement appears on verso.
Array ( [live_biddable] => [inquire] => [phone] => [phone_bid] => 0 [sold] => 1 [unsold] => [make_offer] => [estimate] => 1 [timer] => [current_bid] => [asking_bid] => [start_price] => [buy_it_now_price] => [bid_activity] => )
Partially printed Massachusetts State Lottery ticket signed "H. Gardner" (Henry Gardner) as Treasurer of the State of Massachusetts Bay, 1p, 9 x 5.75 in. June 1779. Ticket entitles holder to fifteen pounds by January 1, 1783, with six percent interest. Printed letters at bottom of document form the phrase "DEATH, TO, COUNTERFEIT, THIS." Ticket numbered "1261" in upper left.
Handwritten document, 2pp, 7.5 x 6 in., Windham, CT. September 21, 1775. Addressed to "John Lawrence, Esq. Treasurer," asking for twenty-two pounds, ten shillings, and three pence to be paid from the public treasury to "Jedediah Elderkin Esq. King's Attorney for Windham County." Signed by "Wm Pitkin[?] Clerk [indecipherable]." Document states that the amount owed is "lawful money the full of a Bill of Cost obtained against John Morriss for altering and uttering false & counterfeit money of the Colony of Rhodeisland [sic]..." Verso with note stating the money was received, signed by "John Alden," Hartford, CT, October 16, 1775.
The Windham County Historical Society's website lists a Jedediah Elderkin on its "Notable Windham Residents" page, identifying him as a "lawyer, States Attorney for Windham County, member of the General Assembly, one of the Governors Council of Safety, a large land owner and manufacturer." If this is the same Elderkin as the one mentioned in the document featured here, he was also commissioned a Colonel of the Fifth Regiment of the Connecticut Militia in March 1775.
Lot of 2.
Adams, Andrew (1736-1794). Delegate to the Continental Congress from Connecticut and signer of the Articles of Confederation. Partially printed DS, 1p, 6.125 x 5.125 in., Litchfield, CT. March 21, 1782. Summons for Jeremiah Osborn of New Haven, CT, requiring his presence before the County Court to answer unto William Samuel Johnson, who claims Osborn owes him money. Additional financial notations on verso.
Hopkins, Stephen (1707-1785). Rhode Island Governor and signer of the Declaration of Independence. Partially printed DS, 1p, 9.75 x 4.75 in., Bay of Cadiz. May 28, 1781. Bill of lading describing the cargo shipped to Philadelphia, PA on board The Virginia by Richard Harrison. The shipment of "two quarter Casks of Wine & fifteen Bushells of Salt" was intended for "his Excellency John Jay," Governor of New York and President of the Continental Congress.
Partially printed check, 8.125 x 2.25 in., signed by John Cadwalader (1742-1786), a commander of Pennsylvania troops during the American Revolution. Made out to "Henry Hill Esq." in the amount of $284.00. Dated at top right, "June 19, 1785."
Howe, Richard (1726-1799). 1st Earl Howe and British admiral who commanded the Royal Navy's North American Station during the American Revolutionary War. DS as admiral, "Howe," 1p, 9.5 x 14.5 in., "onboard His Majesty's Ship the Queen Charlotte a Spithead." October 30, 1790. Shared with "His Royal Highness / the Duke of Clarence, / Captain of His Majesty's Ship / the Valiant." Outlines signalling protocol when officers of various ranks are required on board to receive orders. Includes a table listing the colors and display locations of the signal pendants particular to each ship in the fleet.
ANS, 1p,6.25 x 7.25 in. 14 Feb. 1782, for David Beecher, 28 pounds nine shillings for supplies. To John Lawrence, Treasurer; signed Finn Wadsworth and Eleazer Wales. In Wadsworth's hand.
Capt. John Lawrence (1719-1802) was treasurer of the Colony and later the State of Connecticut from 1769 - 1789. During the war he was commissioner of loans for the new nation.
Finn Wadsworth (1750/1751 - 1785) had been a major under General James Wadsworth from 1776-1779. He saw action in many battles but his health began to fail and he had to leave field service. He remained in service to the United States and Connecticut by serving on the Pay-table.
Eleazer Wales (1732-1794) was a Yale graduate and Presbyterian minister. He served as a "Minuteman" at Lexington in 1775, then in Putnam's regiment during the Siege of Boston. He also fought at Germantown, Fort Mifflin, and other battles and was with Washington at Valley Forge in the winter of 1777/1778.
Second is partially printed voucher, with State of Connecticut, Comptroller's-Office" at top. No. 779, Feb. 11, 1790. Pay "Peter Lewis One Pound fourteen shillings..." Signed by Ralph Pomeroy, Comptroller and Peter Colt, Treasurer, above crossed out printed previous treasurer's name (John Lawrence). Cancelled with large hole in center. Peter Colt (1748-1824) served as Connecticut state treasurer from 1790-1794 and paymaster in New England and eastern New York during the Revolutionary War. He was the grandfather of Samuel Colt, gun inventor and manufacturer. Ralph Pomeroy was paymaster of Connecticut for wages, expenses or losses as a result of the war.
Lot of 2, including framed pencil and gouache scene (9.5 in. x 7.5 in. sight; 13.75 in. x 12 in. framed), accompanied by Bunker Hill Monument Association certificate (9.75 in. x 11.75 in. sight; 14 in. x 15.5 in. framed).
Pencil and gouache scene depicts ships on the Charles River passing between "Boston" and "Charles Town," which are drawn in pencil.
The Bunker Hill Monument Association certificate contains nineteen signatures including that of John Brooks, 11th governor of Massachusetts.
Bone snuff box with scrimshawed designs, 2 in. dia., 1 in. ht. Hinged lid with up-turned tab for opening. A snuff box created as an homage to Andre Hofer, ca 1814, by prisoners captured by Napoleonic Armies' repeated efforts. Hofer, considered by many to be the Tyrolean Patrick Henry, made things very difficult for Napoleon. The box features etched designs of Hofer, in Tyrolean clothing, his name, rendered as Andre Hofer, on a banner below. On the lid is also a man in Tyrolean clothing, holding what appears to be a snuffbox like this one. Around the perimeter are flowers and another banner with a two-line German (Austrian) inscription. We have tried to decipher this, but can only make out some of it: Ein [triss?] _______ sein wen witt (or will? wirt?) / erste ein __r__dsutt ist mir zu nett.
Andreas Hofer was born in 1767 in St. Leonhard in Passeier, the youngest son of six children of Josef and Maria Aigentler Hofer. He attended the typical elementary school, then sent to a school to learn to be a farmer and street trader. He also learned the second language of the Tyrol, Italian. On his return to Passeier he began to manage his father's farm and trade wine and horses, cows, lambs, etc. Later he took over management of his father's inn, Sandhof. He married Anna Ladurner and they had seven children. Hofer was also an officer in the local militia and in 1791 was elected to the local assembly. It was this combination of political experience and some military knowledge that would make him a "natural" leader of the coming rebellion, and his position at the Inn put him in place to communicate with people from far-flung areas and to acquire the news of the day.
After the War of the Third Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars, Tyrol was transferred to Bavaria, then an ally of France (led by Napoleon). The Tyrol was supposed to have the same rights it had had before the treaty ending that conflict, but increasingly France made demands on Bavaria, and, of course, Bavaria made demands on Tyroleans. They increased taxes, instituted conscription, while at the same time, the local economy was in decline. Trade dried up, partly as a result of Napoleon's Continental Blockade and any reserves that existed being used for war. Gradually even the institutional framework of the region was reorganized with Bavaria's new constitution. The loss of special status and the reforms introduced, including what was perceived as an attempt to destroy the Catholic church in the Tyrol (midnight Christmas mass was outlawed, convents were closed and sold, bishops expelled).
The people of the Tyrol were incensed (and worried). They became convinced that French /Bavarian tyranny must be resisted. Hofer traveled around the region recruiting rebels - guerillas who could fight a mountain war. The rebellion in their mind was about conservative values - Catholicism, the monarchy (Holy Roman Emperor), and the homeland. He went to Emperor Francis to gain assurances that Austria/Holy Roman Empire would continue to support the Tyrol. Francis promised that he would not sign any peace treaty that gave up the region.
Initially Napoleon was not interested in the region. He reportedly told Berthier: "Let the Austrians do what they will with the Tyrol; under no circumstances do I want to become engaged in a mountain-based war." He was more interested in southern Germany at that point. When the Bavarians invaded on 9 April 1809, Hofer and his militia were ready. Over the next week, Bavarian troops were massacred and driven out, Innsbruck was captured. It wasn't for a couple more weeks, after Bavaria completely lost control of the region, that Napoleon took any interest at all. He sent Lefebvre to take back the Tyrol. There were several more battles, Innsbruck changed hands several times. But ultimately, the Tyrol could not overcome Napoleon's resources - men, ammunition, supplies. The local crops were evenfailing since most men were fighting. French troops defeated the Austrians, and the Tyroleans realized they had been abandoned by Austria. The Treaty of Schonbrunn again ceded the Tyrol to Bavaria.
Initially, the rebels were amnesty, they put down their weapons and returned to their farms. In November, Hofer was led to believe that Austria had won, and when that proved false, he tried to reform his troops, but to no avail. His subordinate commanders surrendered and Hofer went into hiding in the mountains. The French offered 1500 guilders for Hofer's location, and he was given up by a neighbor and compatriot. Hofer was captured by Italian troops of 28 January 1810 and sent to Mantua to face court-martial. The officers in charge initially disagreed on the sentence, until word came, supposedly from Napoleon himself to "give him a fair trial and then shoot him." Hofer was executed on 20 February 1810. He refused a blindfold, refused to kneel, and gave the order to fire himself. Later Napoleon claimed that Hofer was executed against his wishes. The whole affair had the effect of creating a martyr.
Even today, Andreas Hofer is a Tyrolean folk hero. However, he is often seen as a fighter for Tyrolean independence. His most famous quote is: "I will not trade my life for a lie." What most today do not realize is that Hofer (and his supporters) were actually very conservative, not fighting for Tyrolean independence, but anti-Bavarian domination. They were fighting for their religion (Catholicism) and for their Emperor (Habsburg), and thus for the existing social structure, as the dominant values of the rebellion.
For much more information:
www.napoleon.org/en/history-of-the-two-empires/articles/andreas-hofer-and-the-insurrection-in-the-tyrol-1809/ (accessed 2/25/19)
http://www.executedtoday.com/2016/02/20/1810-andreas-hofer-tyrolean-patriot/ (accessed 2/25/19)
Lot of 27.
Partially printed DS, Port of New York, "Certificate of Exportation of Goods from a District other than the District of original Importation." 23 Sept 1831. Signed by Samuel Swartwout as Depty. Collector. Swartwout (1783-1856) and his brothers became allies of Aaron Burr and were arrested with other Burr allies for misprision of treason. He and the others arrested with him were released, but he was a key witness at Burr's trial in Richmond. Swartwout served as captain of a light infantry corps during the War of 1812 and around this time became associated with Andrew Jackson. When Jackson became President, Swartwout was appointed to the post of collector of customs at New York, one of the most influential positions, since this was a major source of funding for the still-young nation. After he left office, someone (possibly his successor) doctored some documents to make it appear Swartwout has embezzeled over a million dollars and fled to England. He claims he went to England to look after some economic interests he had there (coal). Swartwout claimed innocence. He is also known for his support of the Texas revolution. He sent provisions to Texas and repaired the two-ship navy at his own expense. Swartwout, Texas (now a ghosttown) was named in honor of his support.
ADS, 3pp, New Orleans, 15 Aug. 1838. Addressed to Reuben Peasley, Consul for the United States of America at Havre. Accounting of the cargo of Ship Franklin. "The Ship Franklin sail'd from this port bound for Havre on the 6th June last, but having struck on the bar at the Balize was obliged to put back & refit. The proper surveys upon the ship & cargo were made, and such of the cargo as was found damaged & deteriorating was sold at public auction & the sound portion consisting of 60 bales Cotton, 33 logs Cedar & 3 1/2 bbls beeswax, was forwarded to the original consigners at Havre per Barque Eliza Grant to the care of Mess. Quesnet, freres & Co." He goes on to give a detailed accounting of all consignors' losses, etc. Last page with stamp of US Consulate at Havre and statement certifying that the information is a true copy of the original letter sent to them.Receipt for wall tents and flies, Robert Hill. Note that they passed inspection, signed by S.S. Kelly. June 1851. No place noted.
Receipt for Garrison flags, storm flags and drum cases, United States Clothing Establishment, April 30, 1851. Signed G. Rush Smith, Supt. C.E. Also by Kelly as passing inspection.
ALS, 1+pp. Office of Com. Genl.of Subsistence, Washington, Aug. 11, 1851. To Lieut. W.E. Jones, Mounted Rifles, Jefferson Barracks, MO. Informing Jones that he has unauthorized expenses on his first and second quarter accounts. The last sentence is a bit ominous - "Your accounts for 3d quarter of this year have also been examined."
ALS, 1p, n.p., 2 March 1847. Addressed to President James K. Polk by M (?) McClung requesting a position for his son, Charles, to serve his country. Notes on verso suggest he might be offered a Lieutenancy.
Partially printed apprentice bond, approx. 7.5 x 12 in. Made 23 March 1829, between Wm. Steele on behalf of Johnson Underwood, an orphan, and Geo. W. Scroggons. Johnson Underwood was to train as a tailor until the age of 21, and Mr. Scroggons was to provide lodging, food, clothes, etc., also the youngster was "to be taught to read, and write, and cypher...and at the end of his apprentiship, to pay the said apprentice a fare & complete set of tools and a good suit of cloth[e]s." Signed by Steele and Scroggons.
AD, 1p, 7 x 10 in. "Statement of sale & Proceeds of real estate" in the estate of James C. Cloyd, Sr. Listing all the income, expenses, as well as amounts paid to heirs.
4.5 x 8.25 in. receipt for Carmelite Nuns in 1839, 1840, 1841 for board and clothing for "old woman Clericey" for the years of 1839 & 1840, for 6 months of 1841, and her coffin and burial expenses.
ADS, 1p, 7.75 x 12.5 in. 28 June 1834, Gettysburg, PA. Seems to be a bond agreement in an adultery case. "Henry Johns & John Thompson,...acknowledge themselves indebted & to owe to the Commonwealth of Penna. the sum of Five Hundred Dollars each, to be levied of their goods & chattels, lands & tenements....upon the condition that if the said Henry Johns shall personally appear at the next court of Quarter Session of the peace to be held at Gettysburg for the County of Adams, then & there to answer such matters & things as shall be objected to him in behalf of the commonwealth for adultery with a certain lady Ann Gilbert..."
Group of 17 school compositions, poems and essays, 1847-1859. Over half are by Thirza Russell (with variations on spelling) (Albany), with a few by Mary Ethel (Conway) and a few others. For example, one written in 1855 by Miss Russell (with her name written backwards - Azriht Lessur) begins: "How wonderful are the works of Nature. It is impossible for pen to discribe the curiosities among the works of Nature. Every thing seems to be praising their Creator..."
Lot of 5 newspapers, with content related to important topics of the nineteenth century, including the Texas Revolution, slavery, the Civil War, and significant political elections.
The Globe. Washington, D.C.: Blair & Rives, November 30, 1838. Vol. 8, No. 146. 4pp, 18.25 x 23.375 in. Inside page articles highlight the financial situation in light of the recent repeal of the Specie Circular and the merits of separating the Bank and the State. Includes Texas content related to the support of former New York Collector of Customs Samuel Swartwout, who openly aided the Texans in their struggle for independence from Mexico. Also with several front page presidential announcements of public land sales in states and territories including Florida, Indiana, Louisiana, Missouri, and Wisconsin.
Richmond Enquirer. Richmond, VA: Thomas Ritchie, February 18, 1837. Vol. 33, No. 92. 4pp, 18.25 x 25 in. Includes intelligence from Texas regarding the formation of a cavalry corps and the alleged mobilization of "a large invading Mexican force," as well as commentary on the correspondence among Andrew Jackson, Sam Houston, and Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna. Also with several notices of reward for runaway slaves, including $500 for the return of "Nelson," described as being of "middling stature, thick set. . . he can use carpenter's tools very well, and can make a tolerably good horse shoe."
Richmond Enquirer. Richmond, VA: Thomas Ritchie, April 25, 1837. Vol. 33, No. 116. 4pp, 18.25 x 25 in. Inside page report that recognition of Texan independence by the United States government was announced "with great joy. . . No obstacle now exists. . . to retard the annexation of Texas to the United States." Another article of note offers analysis of the unfolding Panic of 1837, including tables related to the import and export of specie.
Richmond Enquirer. Richmond, VA: Thomas Ritchie, June 11, 1839. Vol. 36, No. 10. 4pp, 18.25 x 25 in. With front page reporting on relations with Mexico, including exhaustive reproduction of the correspondence between Secretary of State John Forsyth and Francisco Pizarro Martinez, Minister Plenipotentiary of Mexico to the United States, concerning their negotiations of the Convention for the Adjustment of Claims of Citizens of the United States of America upon the Government of the Mexican Republic, an agreement previously signed in Washington, D.C. Additional inside page coverage of important domestic events, such as the appointment of Roger Minott Sherman to Justice of the Superior Court and the growing momentum of the Whig party.
New-York Daily Tribune. New York, NY: Greeley & McElrath, August 1, 1862. Vol 22, No. 6654. 4pp, 15.5 x 20.5 in. Teeming with Civil War content, including front page reports of Confederate ironclad warships on that Yazoo River and in Mobile Harbor and the escape of 35 POWs from Alton Military Prison. Inside pages with articles on reinforcing the Union army through recruitment and draft, including a lengthy letter written by General Joseph Warren Revere, then a colonel, 7th New Jersey Volunteers: "I say, then, fill up the old regiments by drafting, and that immediately, and we shall have the best army that ever took the field." Revere expresses his support for utilizing African American troops and extols the principles of discipline and obedience in soldiers of all races.
Printed $500 bond sheet "No. 988," 9.75 x 7.75 in., signed by Charles DeMorse and J. W. Simmons, Austin, TX, June 15, 1840, issued to "C. Conroy," with ten interest warrants attached at bottom (also signed by DeMorse). Several "X" cancellation cuts in certificate, with light discoloration and wear to edges.
Charles DeMorse (1816-1887) served as stock commissioner under Republic of Texas President Mirabeau B. Lamar. He was charged with refunding the increasing public debt caused by the many Lamar's many military campaigns and expeditions.
Lot of newspapers related to historic events or personally significant to California pioneer Nathaniel Miller (1815-1896) and approximately 75 Civil War-era letters and documents related to Miller's work as an elected official in Brookhaven, New York.
Miller's obituary in the Dec. 24, 1896, edition of the New York Times, states that the New York native went to California in 1849, where he "assisted in forming the first vigilance committee at San Francisco," "erected the first building on Battery Street," and "amassed considerable wealth." He returned to his hometown of Brookhaven on Long Island and served as Town Supervisor during the Civil War, after which Brookhaven was the only town in the county to be free of debt.
Nathaniel Miller was elected Town Supervisor on April 5, 1864, and as such the majority of documents and letters in the archive span 1864-1866. Archive content generally falls into one of two categories: general finance and administration of the town of Brookhaven and Brookhaven's contributions to the war effort. Most intriguing are documents related to the war effort which include documentation of the town's efforts to raise funds to procure volunteers and/or substitutes. Miller appears to have been actively involved in securing enlistments to meet the town quota, and also in recruiting low-cost substitutes. One interesting directive from the military officers overseeing recruitment in the state of New York is addressed "To the Supervisors of the Several Counties of the State of New York" and states, in part, that "We respectfully recommend that you immediately convene your Boards to appoint Agents to obtain recruits from the Rebel States to aid in filling the Quotas of your several towns or wards, to meet the last requisition of the President." Handwritten on the verso of this July 23, 1864, document, presumably in Miller's hand, is the note "To recruit negros." Other notable Civil War-era documents include two letters from the Office of the Provost Marshal of the First Congressional District, NY which Miller has endorsed on verso as "Order to draft / May 1864" and "Official quota / Town of Brookhaven / for 500,000 men."
Newspapers in the collection appear to have been carefully selected and organized by Miller whose handwritten notes adorn six newspaper bundles. Bundles as described by Miller include "Newspapers giving particulars of Gen Grants Funeral Aug 8th 1885 to be preserved"; "News papers containing an account of the celebration of the centennial of the avacuation of New York on 25th Nov 1783 / 25 Nov 1883 / To be preserved for all time by request of Nathaniel Miller / Brook Haven 1 Dec 1883"; and "papers giving account of the Snow Storm and Blizzard March 1888 / to be preserved / N. Miller." Among the publications included in the loose newspapers are The Pioneer (11 issues spanning 1881-1896); the San Francisco Chronicle (2 issues spanning 1889-1890); one issue of the Republican Watchman dated December 30, 1865; Brother Jonathan, a Double-Sheet Fourth of July Pictorial Paper dated June 26, 1852; The Weekly Examiner (San Francisco, 3 issues from August 1889); The Brooklyn Times issue of May 15, 1909 which includes a front page article on the Miller family of Suffolk County; and more.
Note that Cowan's sold two exceptional daguerreotypes of Miller in 2014, showing him dressed in his hunting and trapping outfit, armed with a rifle and large knife.
Partially printed military appointment, signed by John B. Floyd, Secretary of War, 1p, 7.75 x 10 in. June 25, 1860. Document informs Charles Christopher Byrne (1837-1921) of his appointment as assistant surgeon, effective June 23, 1860. Prior to his enlistment, Byrne had graduated from the University of Maryland School of Medicine in 1859. During the course of the Civil War, he was promoted twice and attained the rank of lieutenant colonel. Byrne retired in 1901 and was advanced to the grade of brigadier general by an act of Congress in 1904.
2pp, 4.25 x 7.5 in., line paper, dated "HDQuarters A.N.V./ Apl. 10th, 1865," written in the hand of an aid or secretary.
After four long years, both sides were weary of the conflict, but the South was sorely stressed for men and supplies. After losing Petersburg following a long siege, and abandoning Richmond, Lee led his Army of Northern Virginia west, hoping to join forces with Joseph Johnston (who was trying to reach Lee), who had the largest remaining Confederate Army, over 80,000 men. Grant's Union forces cut off their movement at the small town of Appomattox Court House. Lee tried to break through the Union lines, but then realized the size of the force that had come out to meet his army. He saw no option other than to surrender.
As early as April 7, Grant wrote to Lee: "The result of the last week must convince you of the hopelessness of further resistance." He asked Lee to surrender to avoid any "further effusion of blood." Lee responded that he did not agree with the hopelessness, but "I reciprocate your desire to avoid the useless effusion of blood, and therefore,...ask the terms you will offer on condition of...surrender." Communications continued, at least half a dozen notes passes between the two, until Lee finally agreed, "There is nothing left for me to do but to go and see General Grant... and I would rather die a thousand deaths."
Grant's terms were generous - the men would give up public property, but officers could retain their side arms and horses, and any other personal property. All men would be allowed to return home unmolested by Union troops. Grant also gave the starving army food. A couple weeks later, similar arrangements were made to surrender Johnston's Army in North Carolina to General Sherman. Those men also were fed and many given seeds to go home and plant using the horses and mules they took with them.
Lee's aide, Charles Marshall, later described other events that evening. "On the night of April 9th...General Lee sat with several of us at a fire in front of his tent, and after some conversation about the army and the events of the day in which his feelings toward his men were strongly expressed, he told me to prepare an order to the troops..." Marshall had to eventually hide in an ambulance with a guard to have the time to write out the order. Lee did some editing, and Marshall wrote out the corrected order and gave it to a clerk to be copied for commanders and staff. It seems many more copies were made, by every company clerk who could get a copy, and given to General Lee to sign, which he graciously did.
Reports even from years later, while Lee was serving as president of Washington (& Lee) University, indicate that former members of the Confederate army continued to send Lee manuscript copies of General Orders No. 9, and he never refused to sign one. Many of these resided in veterans' halls for the next century and more. It is usually the manuscript copies that surface, written in scores of different hands, signed and unsigned.
The lot is accompanied by a clipping from the Feb. 28, 1968, issue of the Denver Post, regarding the discovery of the Orders, including a photograph of it being displayed by the consignor. The article relates that he found the manuscript inside a copy of Andersonville: A Story of Rebel Prisons (by John McElroy, 1879), which he found while going through his recently-deceased grandmother's possessions. His grandmother, Molly Peiffer of Cripple Creek, Colorado, was an early resident of Cripple Creek and present during its mining heyday in the 1890s. Also found in the book, and included in the lot, is an Aug. 5, 1953, Denver Post newspaper clipping with a "Forty-Five Years Ago" blurb noting the death of Franklin J. Howard, "officer and aide of General Robert E. Lee and pioneer Colorado miner," who died from a fall at his home in Cripple Creek on that day in 1908. We could find no records of a Franklin J. Howard serving as an aide to Gen. Lee during the war, but did find a Franklin W. Howard who served as a private in Co. C, 28th North Carolina Infantry, and is listed by HDS as having surrendered at Appomattox April 9, 1865. We presume these are the same man, as it is not unusual for Confederate records to be somewhat inaccurate, and that Howard may have simply embellished his importance while starting his new life in a mining boomtown. We surmise that Howard may have visited Lee at Washington College and requested a copy, which was given to him.
Seven signatures (letters and clips) plus two unused Civil War patriotic postal covers.
ALS, Nov. 13, 1862, n.p. 3-page soldier's letter, to a wife, sister, or mother. Regarding a furlough at Christmas and IOU for $30. With patriotic cover of "The Girl I Left Behind Me" - one of the more elaborate covers, with red-white-blue illustration, four-line poem below title. This is likely Harrison H. Wallburn [sic, Walburn], who enlisted in the 113th Ohio Vol. Infy. in August 1862.
Special Orders No.42, New Orleans, Feb. 10, 1865. Board of Officers appointed to investigate the destruction of revetment of the levees near Camp Chalmette. Signed by Frederick Speed, AAG to Brig. Gen. Sherman. Speed enlisted in the 5th Maine, transferred to Field & Staff of the 13th Maine, then was commissioned into US Volunteer Adjutant Genl. Department about nine months after that.
Autographed calling card, signed "John L. Worden, Rear Adml. USN, Tucker Hill, NY, July 4th, 1888." John Lorimer Worden (1818-1897) was the commander of the USS Monitor during the Civil War. He challenged the Confederate monitor Virginia at Hampton Roads, VA (9 Mar 1862). Built as an ironclad using parts, including the engines, of the steamer USS Merrimack, the CSS Virginia attacked the blockading Union fleet at Hampton Roads. The following day, the USS Monitor, having been rushed to the region in hopes of defending the wooden Union fleet, although she was not quite complete and the first battle between ironclads began. After 4 hours of steady firing, the ironclads retreated, each unable to puncture the other's armor plate. Cowan's sold Worden's swords in May 2018.
ALS, Washington (DC): 8 Jan. 1897. To Mrs. Frances Edwards, signed E.H. Gelston, telling her that she should "furnish the testimony of two comrades of [the] soldier showing that he suffered from disease... in the service," and enclosing two blank forms for this testimony (unused). On letterhead of "E.H. Gelston & Co., Solicitors of United States Claims and Patents."
LS, Washington (DC): 11 Aug. 1880, acknowledging receipt of annual report for fiscal year ending 30 June 1880. Signed by an adjutant for the Quartermaster General. On War Department, Quartermaster General's Office letterhead, to Lieut. C.A. Earnest, 8th Infy, Benecia, Cal. Affixed on left margin to a brittle page. Could be removed.
Envelope addressed by Lt. General Leo David "Dutch" Hermle (1890-1976). Envelope with automobile dealer's business address and "Hermle" written below. Postmark of National City, CA, Jun. 8, 1953. In WWI he served in the Meuse-Argonne region, capturing the town of Saint Georges and taking 155 prisoners and 17 machine guns. During WWII, he commanded the 2nd marine Division (Pacific Theater), participating in Guadalcanal and Iwo Jima, then commanded occupied Guam.
Clipped signature of Morgan Dix, Episcopal priest, theologian and author. From 1855 until his death he was associated with Trinity Church in New York. Dix was the son of Maj. Genl. John Dix, Civil War general.
Two Civil War patriotic envelopes, one with a soldier in Zouave uniform skewering a figure representing Jeff Davis with the flag pole (American flag flying). The cartoon is entitled "Jeff Davis' Doom." The second is from the "Loyal States" series, this one for Connecticut, with the state seal lower left.
Lot of 70, consisting of 33 loose CDVs, 4 loose miniature tintypes, and the unbound pages of a CDV album, housing 32 additional CDVs and 1 tintype portrait. Majority with backmarks of photographers and studios from southern states, including Louisiana (New Orleans, Shreveport), Tennessee (Jonesboro, Knoxville, Memphis, Morristown, Nashville), and Virginia (Charlottesville, Fredericksburg, Hampton, Lexington, Petersburg, Richmond, Winchester). Several with green 3-cent or orange 2-cent revenue stamp affixed on verso.
Album contains 33 images, many of which bear pencil inscriptions identifying subjects as members of the Peck/Rhoton family of Tennessee. Jacob Peck Rhoton (1838-1884) married Mollie Redding (1846-1918), who is pictured in the album wearing a dark dress and veiled hat, with a riding crop in her right hand ("Sister Mollie / Mrs. Jacob Rhoton"). A sergeant in the Confederate army, Rhoton served in Co. E., 4th Tennessee Cavalry. Portraits of three of the Rhoton children are also present, including Juliet Anna (1869-1937), Frank Luther (1874-1912), and Walter Albert (1871-1945), as well as Maggie Redding, Mollie's sister. Other identified individuals seem to be Jacob's Peck relatives on his mother's (Juliet Nicholson Peck, 1816-1864), side of the family, most notably an uncle, Dr. Isham Talbot Peck (1811-1887), a respected doctor who practiced in Louisiana. A CDV of another uncle, Brigadier General William Raine Peck (1818-1871), a wealthy planter, politician, and commander of the Louisiana Tigers, is now absent, though the labeled sleeve remains.
CDV, 2.5 in. x 4.25 in., of Brigadier General Alexander Hays. Hays fought in both the Mexican-American War and the Civil War, though he is remembered for the latter. Born in Franklin, Pennsylvania in 1819, Hays did not seem destined for military greatness. He graduated 20th out of 25 classmates at West Point, though there he befriended Ulysses S. Grant who was one year his junior. After the outbreak of the Civil War, he enlisted as part of the Union Army and was given command of the 63rd Pennsylvania Volunteers. He could be characterized by his hard fighting and drinking. He fought the Battle of Gettysburg with a cocky attitude and later said that the thought of defending Pennsylvania from the Confederates influenced his actions. Unfortunately, in 1864 at the Battle of the Wilderness he met his untimely end after being shot in the head. His old friend, General Grant, visited his grave during one of his presidential campaigns.
Lot of 15 portraits of Civil War soldiers, most of which are CDVs of officers and enlisted men in uniform. Some bear signatures below photographs, including that of M.V.D. Voorhees, a first lieutenant in Co. D, 103rd Illinois Infantry.
Completed by one cropped postcard bearing the likeness of a Union officer and five tintypes of soldiers, including one ninth plate portrait of a young man with a goatee, housed in a full pressed paper case along with a portrait of a woman in a patterned dress.
Lot of 19 CDVs of United States Naval Academy cadets, pictured both individually and in groups. The portraits are credited to F.M. Zuller, a professional photographer from the Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD, with the exception of one taken at "T.W. Clark's / National / Photographic Gallery / Norfolk / Va." Subjects appear in uniform, including some with hats and gloves, and are identified by name with period inscriptions: William B. Boggs (Washington, D.C.), Willie G. Clark (NY), Frank F. Fletcher (IA), Edgar H. Gaither (KY), Frederick L. Hartmann (NY), Charles W. Haskell (IA), Augustus E. Jardine (NJ), Zun Zow Matsmulla (Japan), Warner H. Nostrand (NY), Hosea A. Osgood (MA), Otho H. W. Ragan (MD), Henry F. Reich (PA), Matthew G. Reynolds (MO), Richard H. Townler (NE), Hunter C. White (RI), Thomas C. Whitehead (NC), and Allen W. Wills (PA). Originally members of the same class, these young men entered the Naval Academy in 1870. All served as cadet midshipmen, with the exception of Boggs, who is listed as a cadet engineer. According to Naval Academy Registers of Delinquencies, Boggs received numerous citations, for reasons including "dirt under bed," "hands in pockets," "playing ball in corridor," and "receiving assistance surreptitiously in his work." Hartmann and Ragan resigned in 1871, but the others presumably graduated, perhaps serving as U.S. Navy officers during the Spanish American War and World War I. Of special interest is Matsmulla (also known as Junso Matsumura), one of two Japanese cadets enrolled under a Congressional resolution passed in 1860. Matsmulla had entered Rutgers College in 1868 but left the following year to enroll in the Naval Academy. He graduated in 1873 and returned to Japan, where he served in the Imperial Japanese Navy as a Captain, Rear Admiral, and ultimately Vice Admiral.
Unique group of nine late 19th century and early 20th century photographs including CDVs, a cabinet card, and a silver gelatin image measuring 8 in. x 6 in. (sight) and 12 in. x 10 in. (mounted). Lot includes:
Four CDVs of Imperial German men in uniform.
Two CDVs of French men in uniform.
One CDV of Canadian man in uniform.
One cabinet card of American man in uniform.
One silver gelatin photograph of a group of four American officers next to six distinguished gentlemen in front of a tent.
Silver gelatin photograph 16 x 13.25 in. matted to 22 x 19 in. Identified to Pach Brothers Studio, one of the oldest photography firms in New York City. The studio address of 935 B'way, N.Y. which appears on the photo dates this photo to ca 1895 or later. Pach Brothers built a reputation for fine portraiture including that of military officers. Image shows 19 men in military uniforms with identification on the collar reading N.Y. 108. Man seated third from left on bottom row bears a striking resemblance to a young Theodore Roosevelt.
Satin ribbon, approx. 3 x 10 in. Printed with "15th National Convention / Buffalo, 1897." And "Department of North Dakota." At top of ribbon is printed the Women's Relief Corps 1883 badge and a 5/8 in. diameter photo of the representative affixed to center of the badge. In the lower half of the ribbon is printed a couple stalks of wheat and a stem of pink roses. The WRC was the women's auxiliary to the Grand Army of the Republic. Their purpose is to keep alive the memory of the GAR. The WRC and GAR created Memorial Day, used to teach patriotism to children in the North (the holiday did not catch on initially in the South). The women would put wreaths alongside flags on the graves of Union veterans and nurses.
Lot of 5
Bill for US Marshal's Service, for numerous services. Approx. 9 x 14.75 in. This one dated March 28, 1886. This one for services related to Miller Rudasill, for "going into cistern Room of the Distillery & Removing & Selling whiskey before the tax due paid." For this one, US Commissioner, H. Cabaniss to execute a warrant, attend the examination of the prisoner, discharging the prisoner for further hearing on posting bail, executing subpoenas on four other people and travel expenses, for a total of $8.00.
Booklet, 4.75 x 7 in., "Rules and Regulations for the Government of the Woman's Relief corps Auxilliary to the Grand Army of the Republic." Boston: E.B. Stillings & Co., December edition for 1891. 40pp in printed paper wraps. Slight toning (wraps and leaves) but overall clean.
Check drawn on the National Bank of Rhode Island, Newport, 19 Sept. 1891. For $10.10, signed Clinton Stuart.
Flier/broadside for Meyers' Opera House; program for Friday, Feb. 16, n.y. 4.5 x 10 in. Fields & Hanson's Minstrels. the first part of the show includes "Admiral Dewey's Reception." 1900 was a year when Feb. 16 fell on Friday. The next year in which that happened was 1906, and by then much of the Spanish-American War "hoopla" had quieted down. The last part of the show was "The Colored Fancy Ball."
Check signed by Melvin H. Purvis, drawn on the Guaranty Bank & Trust, Florence, S.C., dated 3 Sept. 1943 (made out the the phone company). Melvin Horace Purvis II (1903 - 1960) was an agent of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (1927-1935), and became known for leading manhunts for a number of the FBI's "most wanted." He claimed to have tracked down Baby Face Nelson, John Dillinger and Pretty Boy Floyd. After Purvis killed Dillinger (1934), J. Edgar Hoover seems to have become jealous of Purvis' name recognition, and apparently Purvis was "sidelined" by Hoover. Purvis resigned in 1935 and turned to the practice of Law in his home state of South Carolina. During WWII he served in Army intelligence and assisted with evidence against the Nazi leaders during the Nuremburg trials.
Wood case with brass fittings and red velvet lining, dimensions 16.25 x 5.75 x 3 in. Kit includes 19 pieces, with and only three spaces obviously empty. Tools include bone saw, trephine, catlin and liston knives, tourniquet, forceps and more. Blades show a number of different markings including "W.F. FORD", "A. S. ALOE", "HERNSTEIN-PRINCE," and "TIEMANN". Possibly owned by Dr. Victor Clarence Vaughn (1851-1929), longtime Dean of the Michigan Medical School, or one of his students, as the lidded portion contains a newspaper clipping announcing his death.
12-piece set of picks and scalpels in a 6.5 x 3.5 x 1.5 in. wood case with Dr. Bach inked on the top cover. Several maker's marks are present including Carl Reiner, Luer, and Favre.
Two tiers of an extensive surgeon's kit, each 12.5 x 5 in., lined in indigo velvet, containing approximately 33 pieces including a capital saw, catlin knives and scalpels, trephine, chain saw, forceps, and other tools. High-quality tools with ebony handles. Some blades marked "TIEMANN & CO".
Wood case, 12.5 x 7 x 2 in. Brass pump with two tubes and accompanying implements.
Leather drug kit, 6.75 x 3.25 x 1.5 in. (closed), fitted with sleeves to house twenty-four glass vials with metal screw caps, each 3 x 0.5 in. Interior gold lettering reads, “Parke, Davis & Company, / Detroit, Mich.” Bottles with a mixture of printed and manuscript labels, indicating original contents and dosing instructions, some still with various tablets and powders inside. Also with hinged metal box, 3.75 x 2 x 0.25 in., containing eleven needles of varying lengths, some of which are curved.
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