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Lot # 225
UNPRECEDENTED CIVIL WAR ARCHIVE OF CONFEDERATE COLONEL JOHN B. G. KENNEDY,
5th Louisiana Battalion/21st Louisiana Infantry. The important group of battle flags belonging to Kennedy’s 5th Louisiana Battalion is the other component of the colonel’s archive originally acquired from descendants in Maine and described elsewhere in the catalog. This extraordinary portion of Kennedy material features his inscribed pre-war presentation sword, both braided arms cut from his Confederate uniform coat, a wonderful pair of hand-worked Mexican-style stirrups, metal spurs, a tattered pre-war sword belt and rectangular plate, a small brass telescope, four brass rank stars from the collar of Kennedy’s uniform, wartime cdvs of the colonel in uniform and an unidentified older woman, a companion albumen of Colonel Kennedy taken from the cdv with another albumen of, presumably, Mrs. Kennedy and child wearing the Colonel’s braided cap.
Accompanying is an extensive written wartime archive of signed manuscript orders, 54 items (21 war date letters, 5 Confederate military orders, 5 pre-war letters, 8 Reconstruction, 12 genealogical letters and notes, 3 other letters, scraps) that includes numerous letters to and from home, two of the Colonel’s Louisiana militia commissions, a letter to Kennedy written by the Captain of the Confederate gunboat Ponchartrain relating to the erection of batteries at Island No. 10, plus other military correspondence with Generals Polk and Johnson, a Bill of Sale “for a negro slave” sold to Kennedy in 1857 New Orleans, a manuscript roster of 21st Louisiana officers, and hand-written orders and lists accounting for men transferred from the 21st Louisiana to the 20th and 1st Louisiana at Tupelo in July 1862.
Born around 1822, John B. G. Kennedy, a watchmaker by trade, mustered into the Confederate Army with a decade and a half of antebellum militia experience to his credit having been first commissioned Captain of the Putnam Guard in the 6th Regiment Louisiana Militia during the Mexican War and through the 1850’s holding rank in at least two of cosmopolitan New Orleans’ active military companies. Following Louisiana’s secession on January 26, 1861 the state militia played a key role in the seizure of government facilities including the New Orleans Mint and Baton Rouge Arsenal but it is unknown what, if any, role Captain Kennedy’s National Guards of New Orleans might have played.
On April 30, 1861 Kennedy was appointed Captain, C.S. Commissary Department but held the position only briefly before resigning on August 14 preparatory to accepting a commission as Lieutenant Colonel, P.A.C.S. to date from August 22, 1861. In this capacity Kennedy was later assigned to the newly raised 5th Louisiana Battalion mustering just four companies of Orleans Parish men, mostly ethnic “emigrants from Germany, France, Norway and Ireland” while temporarily commanding the nearby rendezvous for volunteers at Camp Polk.
As an independent command Kennedy’s Battalion was destined to have but a short and somewhat convoluted existence. The small battalion was soon forwarded to Columbus, Kentucky joining the Army of the Mississippi commanded by General Beauregard in mid-January 1862. Here, the battalion added four companies and was formally “raised to a regiment and designated the 21st (Kennedy’s) Louisiana Infantry,” reporting a respectable 784 men “present” on February 9, 1862. About this time Kennedy would have been elevated to full colonel. The 21st Louisiana was assigned to Colonel R. P. Neely’s mixed Louisiana-Tennessee brigade of five regiments plus artillery and cavalry. The regiment, which operated for only a year, is one of the most under-documented regiments from Louisiana, but played a notable role in the struggle for control of the Mississippi River.
Facing the Federal onslaught after the fall of Forts Donelson and Henry, Confederate forces found it increasingly difficult to defend the upper Mississippi River Valley. In late February following the loss of Forts Henry and Donelson a portion of the regiment (probably the four companies of the original 5th Battalion) was ordered to join the river garrison at Island No. 10, roughly 7,000 men under the command of Major General John P. McCown. Kennedy was among those placed in charge of preparing the artillery and fortifications on the Island. In industrious fashion, Kennedy oversaw mounting of fifty heavy artillery pieces and another 12 guns were mounted in New Madrid. They were later joined by the balance of the regiment until mid-March when some unknown portion of the 21st Louisiana left to garrison Ft. Pillow, effectively splitting the command. The Confederate order of battle for Island No. 10 inexplicably refers to the 5th Louisiana Battalion commanded by Colonel Kennedy in a two-regiment brigade led by Colonel S.F. Marks of the 11th Louisiana.
After a three-week siege the appearance of Federal ironclads tipped the balance and a well-executed combined operation undertaken by Foote of the Navy and Pope of the Army in desperate weather succeeded in outflanking and cowing the Confederate defenses. Seeing his only means of retreat cut-off, Brigadier General Mackall who had been left in charge, surrendered the Island No. 10 garrison on April 8, 1862. The fall of Island No. 10 effectively opened the Mississippi from Cairo to Vicksburg.
Crute says the 5th Louisiana Battalion went into captivity and was later exchanged. It is unclear whether Colonel Kennedy was likewise captured and paroled. The other component of the 21st Louisiana at Ft. Pillow evacuated the post in May 1862 and proceeded to Corinth, then withdrawing to Tupelo where Bragg commenced a general reorganization of the depleted western army “for the duration.” An unknown number of exchanged men of the 5th Battalion reunited with their erstwhile 21st Louisiana comrades but it appears based on insufficient strength that it was impossible to perfect a full ten company regimental organization under strict new army orders and on July 28, 1862 General Bragg “ordered the regiment disbanded and the men assigned to other Louisiana units in the army.”
Manuscript orders in Kennedy’s archive attest to the fact that as early as July 21 several hundred men were transferred to the 20th Louisiana followed by another large draft to the 1st Louisiana. Unable to form a regiment but with substantive rank, Colonel Kennedy would have been discharged as "supernumerary." Indeed, the only other reference we have to Kennedy’s wartime service dates to March 11, 1864 when he was appointed an “Agent of the Quartermaster Department, C.S.A.” under SO 59, paragraph 19.
Still relatively young, John B. G. Kennedy died at Montgomery, Alabama on November 26, 1867, his artifacts beginning a 139-year journey until recently resurfacing and being brought to sale here today. Kennedy almost certainly carried this early M1850 presentation foot officer’s sword during his Confederate service. The solid sentiment inscribed on the upper brass band was a reminder of happier days and must have been a source of renewed inspiration during troubling times. It reads, “Presented to Captain J.B. G. Kennedy by Company G. National Guard, New Orleans, a token of our esteem as a Citizen and Confidence as an Officer. April 22nd, 1856.” The sword is unmarked but appears to be a Horstmann product with imported German blade based on the style of etching than features generic patriotic motifs and ubiquitous “US” on reserve. The undamaged blade has turned to dull gunmetal with several concentrated areas of shallow black corrosion that could be minimized by polishing. The hilt is typical foliated brass with 100% wire-wrapped sharkskin grip exhibiting an untouched mellow patina. The metal scabbard is damaged but the brass presentation mount is unaffected. The metal has completely rusted through on the reverse side just below the second brass mount. Ages ago a coat of thin silver paint was haphazardly applied over the damaged areas adding an unnatural appearance to the existing problem. The rest of the dent-free scabbard shows an uneven brown metallic tone interspersed with spots of active rust. A tattered remnant of a leather sword strap is attached to the upper ring.
About 13 inches of both uniform sleeves made of grayish-brown wool jean material remain, cut cleanly below the elbow. The cuffs are dark blue velvet with the regulation three strands of gold braid worked into “chicken guts” indicating the rank of lt. colonel/colonel. The cuff buttons are missing.
The pair of Mexican-style stirrups may date as early as the Mexican War and are decorated with exceptionally well-done brass cut-outs worked into the shape of eagles and inlaid into the wood then secured by numerous small brass screws. The wood edges are banded with brass for reinforcement. The front and back of the stirrups are worked in a meticulous scalloped design—all together very simple yet with a distinct folk-art quality. The plain brass spurs with iron rowels are typical of the period, still with tattered leather attachment straps.
The sword belt and plate are also antebellum militia accoutrements, the cast rectangular eagle plate appearing to be a lighter gauge metal than most. The back of the plate is stamped with a “T” while the brass keeper on the belt is marked “7684.” The leather has significantly deteriorated, now in relic condition. The telescope is unremarkable and expands to 7” with unbroken glass optics. The four stamped brass collar stars of uniform size are sufficient to rank as a lieutenant colonel. Very little of the original gilded finish remains. The smaller items were housed in an old pine New England-style box measuring 13” by 6.5” by 5” tall with a heavily crackled varnish finish.
The light cdv of Kennedy wearing the three stars of a colonel has the imprint of “J.Sweny, Montgomery, Alabama” and bears the pencil notation, “John B.G. Kennedy/my father” on verso. The carte of the older woman is unidentified. The albumen of Kennedy copied from the cdv is probably immediate post-war and is mounted on thicker, trimmed stock. The albumen of Mrs. Kennedy and child is likewise a period copy shot mounted on an identical-style board, now trimmed with significant edge damage.
The Kennedy artifacts are accompanied by an extensive written archive that richly illustrate their Civil War context. The archive is a small, but remarkable collection of letters and documents relating to the service of an intriguing, but little known Confederate officer. Highlighting the collection is an important series of five documents relating to Kennedy’s work in fortifying Island No. 10, including the order dispatching Kennedy to assume command of the post: “He will give his special attention to mounting guns, and to the erection of buildings for storing away temporarily the ammunition that may be sent him for the defence of the post” (Feb. 23, 1862). Two days later, Gen. Leonidas Polk asked Kennedy to report on any boats passing and “He also wishes to know how many negroes you have at work, and directs you to press into the service the negroes in the vicinity if they are not brought in by their owners. The work he urges you to press with the utmost energy…” (Feb. 25, 1862). Another of he documents is signed (DS) by Confederate Brig. General James DeBerty Trudeau, who somehow managed to escape the surrender of Island No. 10.
Beyond the Island 10 documents, the collection includes some extraordinary and rare pieces documenting the 21st, most importantly a large and detailed descriptive roll of the 88 men transferred to the 20th Louisiana, dated when the 21st was broken up in July, 1862. The roll includes not only the name and rank of each soldier, but age, height, complexion, eye and hair color, birthplace, occupation, accoutrements, and remarks. Interestingly, nearly all of the men were foreign born, primarily German. Two other documents relate to the breaking up of the regiment: a smaller (in size) roll of the men transferred to the 1st Louisiana, and a roster of officers of the 21st as of May, 1862. Finally, the collection includes a printed voucher for pay, unused for the insertion of Kennedy’s name and regiment.
Most of the 21 war-date letters were written by colleagues and friends of Kennedy, some of whom served with him in the short-lived 21st. Several relate to Kennedy’s efforts in 1862 and 1863 to reorganize the regiment, including a request to assist with conscripts (with a note saying that Braxton Bragg had postponed filling out the regiment), and a request for Kennedy to verify the writer’s position as adjutant in the 21st so that he would not be required to enter another regiment as a private.
A few of the letters provide fascinating insights into the failing attempts to fend off the federal forces in the deep south. From friend in Louisiana, Kennedy received the following news about his native region in December 1862: “We have from all I can learn, the prospect of a loosing campaign in this part of Louisiana -- The enemy outnumber us greatly, and there is a great want of enterprise among our troops. Col. Sulakowski is fortifying on the Atchafalaya a few miles below to prevent the gunboats from coming up. The Yankee gunboats are sweeping every thing before them, aided as they are by the land troops…” No less interesting is a fine letter from a Confederate soldier recently paroled from a prison camp in the north: “The Yankees they treated us very mean while they kep us in there posession. They would give us for our breakfast a cup of slop water that they called it coffee and two little hard crackers for dinner. We had cup of soup it was made out of corn and a small peace of boiled beaf, with that we had to do all day and not say a word besides we had to drink salt water half of the time...” (Aug. 29, 1863)
For literary merit and historical insight, the true gems in the collection may be the series of four letters from a friend, John H. Hewitt, and two from his wife, written just after the close of the war. A writer (and an excellent one) from Baltimore, Hewitt’s first letter was written as he was arriving in Savannah after an arduous journey by steamboat (humorously described): “Allie found her relations all well, but in a good deal of trouble on account of the suffering times. The people here have experienced great want -- but the Federal authorities have done the best they could to relieve them, and I have heard of many acts of kindness on the part of Yankee soldiers which do honor to them. There are some grains of wheat among the chaff -- some little show of humanity even among rough enemies…” (Aug. 13, 1865) Allie’s bitterness was more evident. After hearing of a friend who was rumored to be engaged to a Yankee soldier, she wrote: “I am in hopes, if it is true, that he may prove to have a wife & six children at home; This is my wish on any Southern girl who will degrade themselves to marry a Yankee.”
From Baltimore, a few months later, Hewitt’s tone had changed, and his words suggest the course that Reconstruction would take all across the south: “The ladies of Baltimore have come out handsomely in behalf of the suffering people of the South. They got up the great “Southern Relief Fair” amid the sneers and jeers of the Black Republican crew who are trying their best to raise the negro in the scale of humanity, and place him above their own race. Donations to this fair have poured in from all parts -- even England, Yankeedom, and New York have helped to swell the fund…. Articles of all kinds -- mammoth steers, mules, horses, houses and lots, wood, coal, flour, groceries, lumber, dry goods, machines, farming utensils, drugs, patent medicines, toys, soaps, telegraphs and the Lord knows what. Those who could not send material gave money… If you dislike the North, my dear friend, please do not include Baltimore in your denunciations -- she is true though the good old State of Maryland is suffering under worse bondage than ever did the race of Ham. We, the white race, -- meaning those have sympathized with the South, are disfranchised. The Radicals will not allow us to vote -- but, the dear nigger must have that privilege -- for the safety of their ticket depends upon the black vote. I hope they will nominate Fred. Douglas for the next Presidency -- it would give such a novel to the office, saying nothing about the odor.” (April 22, 1866).
Among the miscellaneous other items in the collection are two of Kennedy’s commissions in the Louisiana militia, 1846 and 1851; an affidavit regarding Kennedy as captain during the Mexican War; and a partially printed form for sale of an enslaved woman, Hester Barrow, aged 20 (1857). There is also a scarce, unused printed form from C.S. Quartermaster department for receipt of goods. Even the genealogical material has substantial value and merit. Kennedy married a woman of Choctaw descent, and four letters relate specifically to the efforts of Kennedy’s granddaughters to prove her Choctaw ancestry, including a printed “Resolutions presented by Luke W. Conerly and adopted by the Chief Council Mississippi Choctaws,” 1913, and “Chief Council Society Mississippi Choctaws,” ca.1913, both relating to the Choctaws’ efforts to gain federal tribal recognition. In one of his two letters, Conerly urges the sisters to support his efforts to grain recognition.
The Kennedy archive is a diverse and important assemblage of documents relating to a fascinating individual, a little known regiment, and important time in the history of Louisiana. All told a rare opportunity to acquire a substantial record of a field grade Confederate officer. (EST $10000-$15000)
Condition: After decades of storage the Kennedy collection remains in solidly displayable condition with noteworthy damage discussed above. Condition of paper materials generally good, but with expected age toning, wear and separation at folds, and some typically sketchy Confederate paper.
Lot # 1372
CIVIL WAR MANUSCRIPT ARCHIVE OF B.F. BATCHELER, 26TH MICHIGAN AND 28TH U.S.C.T.,
B.F. Batchelor Papers, 1862-1866. 26th Michigan Infantry and 28th U.S. Infantry (Colored). Ca 250 items, nearly all war date, including 100 soldier’s letters, two diaries.
When the war erupted, Newton Kirk (a friend from Howell, Mich.) wrote to Batcheler to describe the stirring scene and rising tide of union sentiment in a classic of early-war sentiment: You speak of the great excitement there on account of the Southern troubles. Here, it exceeds any thing of the kind known since the Revolution, nearly every man you meet on the streets has on the regimentals, and regiments are marching and drilling all the time in the Park, on the Battery and every other available spot. … Billy Wilson, a noted prize fighter has been getting up a novel company, all persons of like character with himself. All of the are the worst cases that N.Y. contains. They say he offered a reward for all the thieves and pickpockets they could find. After his company left, a man came to the office to enlist, he asked him where he came from, “I have just got out of the states prison,” he says, “You’ll do,” says Billy, pass on… There never was known, in the whole History of Modern times, so unanimous a feeling, a people, forgetting all party ties, all political distinctions, as at the present times, all political animosities, all feelings of self interest. Every other feeling is lost and swallowed up in the one great idea, “The Union, It must and Shall be preserved.”
A fine writer, Batcheler’s letters provide feeling as well as fact, filling in details on the course of a Civil War soldier’s life. His description of the departure from home is typical in its attention to detail: There was quite a large collection of people in the street to witness the novelty of the scene, and to bid us God speed as we passed. All went off pleasantly as we marched threw the city bidding adieu to those who only regarded us as friends in the same common cause, the putting down of this wicked rebellion. But as we were about to step into the cars a different scene transpired, friends of a stronger tie than that which binds us together from love of country were to part. Those that long had shared the same fireside comforts and the hospitalities of the same table even fathers, mothers, sisters and brothers were made to bid each other a good bye for a time at least and perhaps forever. It was quite a feeling time for one to take the parting hand of home friends. I for one was glad that I did not have to take a part in this personally, Not because I would not have been pleased to have seen you all again before going south but for reasons above mentioned…
Having arrived in Virginia by mid-December and assigned to duty in Alexandria, Batcheler’s Co E was assigned to keep whiskey shops in subjection and they soon gained a reputation for the ability to clean out more grog holes than any other company in the Regt. The upstanding Batchelor volunteered for special duty: The Lieut. got me some old cloths which I put on that I might have the appearance of a citizen. In this way I found two shops by pretending to be a workman and calling for something to drink which they set out thinking all was right. But the floor caught the most of it, it being beer, and in a short time the rest was running off on the ground. His rectitude and sense of wartime propriety extended to other areas as well. Batcheler was clearly irked by his roommate’s letter to the Howell Democrat, which he claimed contained mostly falsehoods, and entirely so where it speaks of the negro being better used then the soldier or that the Union soldiers are not well cared for… He reaps his rewards however, as his letter was sent to his Lieut. who reported him and the other day he received a written order from Brig. Gen. Slough to report to his company for duty immediately. I tell you that any one with ‘secesh’ sympathies has to keep his tongue between his teeth. Batcheler does not say whether he brought the letter to the attention of his Lieutenant.
Although the 26th did not perform exciting duty during the spring and summer 1862, Batcheler’s descriptions make for interesting reading. From Alexandria he offered some stereotypical descriptions of the first “darkies” he encounters in the south, an interesting start to service for a future officer in a Colored regiment, and his descriptions of their work building entrenchments around the beleaguered city of Suffolk in May include some valuable information about the operations there. Arriving there in April to reinforce the union forces, Batcheler spent his first night grumbling as the scene before him seemed to take an ominous turn: Our Regt. in connection with some others were ordered to take position behind the breastworks which form a portion of the defences of the south while a battery a few cavelry and some infantry made the advance. While the above mentioned were advancing two forts sent shells into the woods ahead of them. There was little over a mile of a beautiful plain to pass over when the battery took position behind the woods and commenced to throw shell in advance of the advancing infantry… From the men that went out from the point where we were stationed 31 were brought in, two killed and the rest wounded. At least that was the report. Some were wounded by our own shell…
His second letter from Suffolk provides additional detail as the fight continues: The 25th was sent out to patrol across the Nansemond, he wrote, but just before reaching the place of crossing a whole rebel brigade made its appearance and the order was countermanded. Just then there forts opened fire on the rebs throwing shell at a rapid rate among them which must have done fearful execution. The 99th [NY] still charged on under a murderous fire until they had about gained the rifle pits when finding they were contending against great odds, a retreat was ordered. They fell back having met with a loss of 45 killed and wounded. Never did men go into the work with more earnestness. The rebel loss is not known but must have been heavy… but it cannot be otherwise than that the rebels lost a large number unless they are proof against shell, for our men could see them thrown into the air as the irons bursted. The collection includes three more, excellent letters from Suffolk siege and others for their time near Yorktown and on the Chickahominy River.
In keeping with his patriotic motivation and unforgiving attitude, as early as February 1862 Batcheler was complaining about the failure of the men at home to support the war effort and particularly about their response to the draft. Irritated at news of draft resistance in Michigan, he wrote: What can they be thinking about? Do they think they are doing that which will be a benefit to themselves or to those in the future? Do they not know they are doing that which sanctions rebellions? And in case there should be a division of these sister states are they aware that their property will diminish greatly and their national safety be impaired? How I ask can any who regard their own welfare think of a division? I say it is better for us all to unite and fight it out at once and save the Union for where can the line of separation be drawn?...
Ironically, the 26th was among the regiments sent to quell the New York Draft Riots of July 1863, during which duty Batchelor wrote two excellent descriptions of the scene in the streets. As we were passing along to broadway, he wrote, the irish women assailed us with threats, groans, & nicknames calling us Abolition Lincoln Soldiers and telling us we were not wanted here. No notice was taken of them however… They have been having a serious time here for a few days back, considerable of fighting has been going on between the mob and the military. Policeman are about in great numbers, some soldiers and a large number of the rabble have been killed…. Last night the military engaged the mob and dispersed them after killing about thirty and taking the leaders prisoners, 15 soldiers were killed…. The draft is claimed to be the cause of the riot, but Policeman say that all the black legs in the country are here and are making this stir for the purposes of plundering…. In his next letter, he described the aftermath of the riots, how the priests implored their parishioners to remain loyal and stay calm. To help maintain the peace, the 26th remained in New York until mid-October, when they were attached to the Army of the Potomac for the first time.
The first major combat in which the 26th took part was during the Mine Run Campaign, from which Batchelor wrote an excellent, long crosshatched letter. The skirmish line is but a short distance from where I am now seated and an occasional ball can be heard whistling over our heads…As I now write the cannon is roaring at a fearful rate on the right. Yesterday morning at four oclock we were ordered to march before we had time to cook our breakfast. We were marched at almost double quick over a rough muddy road for 8 or 10 miles. Our brigade was then thrown forward as skirmishers. The rebels were taken by surprise and driven into their trenches though they were many more in number…We went up in sight of the rebel works and they opened on us with shell. We fell back out of sight of the rebs where we saw our boys charge on the rebels which was a fine affair. The shells and balls tore the ground up among them wounding some, but the boys not in the least daunted pushed forward driving the rebels of superior numbers before them.
After Mine Run, the regiment remained in their winter camp at Stevensburg except for playing a diversionary role for a cavalry raid in early February 1864: The air was very foggy so it afforded us a good chance to take them by surprise, which we did driving hem inside of their works. After dark our men charged and took one line of works loosing 280 men in wounded. The Corps commander was highly displeased with the movement as he intended to have us skirmish with them enough to keep them from marching against the Cavalry… A friend, Dick Sarshads, was one of the scouts used during the ill-fated Kilpatrick-Dahlgren Raid on Richmond. Sarshads, Batcheler wrote, with ten other[s] disguised as rebel cavalry went within ten miles of Richmond and back passing through many rebel camps. Going towards Richmond they claimed to be sent to inform the authorities there of the raid in order that they might be ready to meet the ‘Yanks’ coming to cut off their supplies by making a break in the railroad. Their real business was to destroy bridges out of the line of march of the main force. They burned three large bridges and tore down telegraph wires. Acting the spy is rather dangerous business but if pay is to be considered in such matters they get well remunerated… With less panache, Batchelor describes the highs and lows of camp life: the stirring antislavery lectures of Grace Greenwood, two cases of drumming out of the military (for drunkenness, for theft), the arrangement of a winter camp, the organization of a brigade and field responsibilities, and his none too favorable opinions of copperheads.
In April, Batchelor and his friend Newton Kirk went to Washington to take the exam to become officers in a “colored” regiment, Kirk passing as Captain, Batcheler as 2nd Lieutenant. You may think it a foolish move in us, but we came to the conclusion that while we were soldiers we might better do the best we could. This branch of service (or rather the Officers) are much superior to the volunteers. No person is allowed his position unless he is qualified for it, which you know has not been the case in volunteer service, not as much so as it ought to have been…. The return to his regiment to await his commission could not have come at a tougher time, as he reunited with the 26th just as they moved into the grinding campaigns of Mary 1864. Batchelor was wounded in the regiment’s famed charge at Spotsylvania Court House on May 12, 1864, and he described his wound for the folks at home: My wound is on the left shoulder. It is about five or six inches in length and large enough to lay a finger in it. It is but a flesh wound and is by no means dangerous. I received it in the great charge of the 12th inst. Got within about a rod of the rebel breast works when I fell. Was carrying the flag at the time. What troubles me more than any thing else is I can hear nothing from Newton. He was missing after the charge and when I left the front he had not been heard from. No one saw him fall. .. Our regiment was badly cut up…. We took from six to eight thousand prisoners and 49 pieces of artillery… From hospital ten days later he writes that he dreams every night of Kirk, that he returns to his regiment and is told that Kirk was wounded and in hospital, though no one he asks knows.
At Patterson Park Hospital, Baltimore, Batcheler healed slowly through the heat of summer until September, when he finally accepted the offer of a commission in the 28th USCT. Not an abolitionist, Batcheler saw an opportunity for advancement and better pay and took it, joining the 28th, a regiment that had been recruited in central and northern Indiana and among freed slaves from Kentucky in April 1864 and that had been one of the units devastated by the debacle at the Battle of the Crater in Petersburg. On October 4, Batcheler wrote that 9th Corps, to which the 28th had been assigned, was again in the midst of fighting, and his regiment, to whom he had yet to report, were at the front, though having taken his time to join them, he wrote: Don’t know but I am keeping out of some of the fighting by staying in the rear. When he finally joined his company (A), he became one of its two officers, each of whom could boast their own waiter. Many of the darkies are excellent cooks, having been brought up to do the like. Since I have been here we have been busily at work building forts and breast works. You would be astonished to see how quick large and strong works can be erected. In a few hours after getting into position a strong line of breastworks will be before us and all busily at work on forts. The whole army may be considered engineers, or one would think them such…
In other letters, Batchelor provides interesting accounts of non-combat-related incidents of a military life. In addition to the drumming out, he was witness to a double execution of deserters: There were three regiments formed in line and the prisoners were then marched aloud under guard keeping step with the music and in rear of their coffins. They looked very solemn. After marching past us they were marched to their graves (which were dug) where the coffins were placed. (A few moments were allowed them to make preparations for eternity. One of them mad a good prayer. They then took their seats for their coffins, were blindfolded and at a signal given a volley of musketry was heard and their spirits had departed for regions unknown to mortals. This seems very hard but it is necessary to have discipline in the army. They were brothers and had not seen each other for years until about eight months ago. Before they took their seats to be shot they shook each others hands. (March 11, 1865). He was coincidentally in Washington on the 15th of April: A great excitement prevails in this City at present caused by the assassination of President Lincoln. He was shot in Ford’s Theater by a man by the name of Booth. Was shot last night at half past ten and died some time this forenoon. Sec. Seward and son were also at about the same hour assassinated in their own hous. The latter I understand has since died…. They seem to feel the loss in this City very much. Nearly all business has been suspended today and buildings draped in mourning. Sadness seems depicted in nearly every countenance. The murderer is well know in this place and will without doubt ere long be arrested…. I never has anything of the kind shock me so in my life as when I heard the truth of the report. Our nation will miss so able a statesman as President Lincoln…
With the cessation of fighting in the east, Batchelor considered whether he wanted to remain in the military, Provided we colored folks are allowed to. The regiment was sent to Texas in June, however, and remained in the service until well into 1866.
The collection includes a full suite of letters to Batchelor from throughout the period of his service, many of which provide interesting details on the home front in Michigan. On July 4, 1865, his sweetheart Sarah wrote that her father had visited Howell at noon: of course the [fourth of July] address was over with -- but Father has said he wouldn’t hear that. It was delivered by Prof. Taft of Fentonville -- a new revision of a formerly boastful Copperhead -- Disloyalty is a very unpopular element at present -- ‘tis entirely out of date, at least a month or two behind time -- any person with any pretensions to honor, patriotism, or popularity has certainly ere this trimmed his unsightly, thread-bear coat with luxuriant drapery of the latest and most attractive style. If a man is a man let him show himself manly. If he is a cowardly traitor, assume his own garb, that he may lay claim to the last remaining spark of honesty which is so nearly and effectually extinguished from his soul… From Ann Arbor in May, 1865: The President’s assassination cast a deep and almost impenetrable gloom over the entire North. The churches now without exception in so far as I know draped in the deepest mourning upon the following sabbath as well as upon the funeral day. College adjourned and did appropriate honors to the departed. Dr. Haven pronounced a eulogy which has been highly spoken of by men of all parties…
Finally, the collection includes a small account book with some records of ordnance stores for 28th USCT and a list of men in hospital, 1865; a pocket diary for 1864 (including a second record of Spotsylvania), and a diary for 1865, which includes a section of autographs of Confederate POWs.
An unusually large and varied collection from a highly motivated Michigan soldier, made all the more important by his service with the 28th USCT, one of the most active colored regiments in Virginia. Collections of this size and quality are disappearing from the market. (EST $4000-$6000)
Condition: Good condition with expected wear and tear.
Lot # 1373
CORPORAL B. F. BATCHELER, 26TH MICHIGAN SPOTSYLVANIA CAMPAIGN LETTER & HAND-DRAW
30 pp manuscript on lined paper under cover letter to sister, written between May 3 and May 17, 1864 in narrative form “as fast as it transpired or as soon as I could get a chance…in the past tense which made me make many mistakes…” Corporal Batcheler was wounded “in the left shoulder” on May 12, 1864 during the assault on the Bloody Angle “about a rod from the enemy’s works” and spent part of the summer recovering in a Philadelphia hospital before taking a commission as 2nd lieutenant in the 28th USCT. With accompanying 6.5” by 9” inked map (damaged) of battlefield drawn by Batcheler and showing “about where I was wounded” with notations referring to key troop dispositions. At the end of the cover letter (back of p. 29) sending his small journal and map home to Osceola, Michigan Batcheler implores his sister to “Please preserve this.”
At Spotsylvania the 26th Michigan served in Colonel Nelson Miles 1st Brigade of Francis Barlow’s Division, 2nd Corps. Page 1 to 22 traces the 26th Michigan’s march from Ely’s Ford through the old Chancellorsville battlefield “on our way to Spotsylvania Court House.” Batcheler’s narrative at this point is focused primarily on the preparation for the march, the weight of the load with “fifty rounds of cartridges,” and the hot, uncomfortable weather, interspersed with an occasional patriotic soliloquy to keep his spirits up. Batcheler often refers to “throwing out skirmishers” during the march and infrequent breaks affording a brief moment to partake of a sumptuous meal of hard tack and beef followed by fitful sleep, particularly as the regiments get closer to the sound of guns. With a farmer’s eye he observes that the country we passed through did not look as though it had been traversed by armies though the buildings and fences looked as though they had been much neglected for want of laborers…
Batcheler seems to always “hear” more than he actually sees giving credence to the notion that armies through time have always marched on rumors as well as feet…all night pioneers could be heard busily at work building breastworks. The report of the death of Gen. (Alexander) Hays was quite current and afterwards confirmed. Hays commanded another brigade in Birney’s division ahead in the column and was killed on May 5, 1863 near the intersection of the Brock Road and Orange Plank Road.
Closer now to actual combat the edgy soldiers become proficient in the drill of drawing up into line of battle repeating the exercise several times daily… on our way back from the line of battle a number of dead and wounded were passed over. The musketry was very heavy all the afternoon. Volley after volley would roll along the line then there would be a charge, followed by cheer after cheer showing our brave boys were still there. On May 6th the report was quite current that the rebs were massing their forces to move on our works which were situated on Rose Mound Farm. The time was split between “fortifying" and sending out companies as skirmishers, occasionally with some tangible evidence of the enemy in front like the one wounded rebel and one prisoner brought in last night. More rumors swirled that our right has given way and that a retreat was necessary. Sleep was impossible and with morning a squad of cavalry informed us that the report was without foundation and that the rebels were retreating.
That night a battle ensued with a Rebel force “in the rear” trying to get between us and the main force… the Johnnies came charging and yelling through the woods our skirmishers fell back to the main line when a deafening fire commenced. The disappointed rebs soon fell back. Batcheler recalls tension from marching and counter marching from one position to the next with time only for more entrenching and “strengthening of works.” On May 11 we get the news that our men on the left charged and took 2,000 prisoners and 12 pieces of cannon. With this favorable news came the sad intelligence of the death of General Sedgwick the commander of the 6th Corps…shot by a sharpshooter when near the enemy’s line. The same day Colonel Miles entire brigade were called out to reconnoiter in force, Sharpshooters were very thick and picked off our men at a fearful rate. We lost 21 in our regiment in killed and wounded, one was killed in Co. E.
After a “long and tedious” night march in the mud the 26th Michigan arrived at daybreak and assembled for the Hancock’s grand assault of May 12th. Here we found the Corps drawn up in line of battle closed in-mass and ready to charge the rebel works at the Bloody Angle. Francis Barlow’s division would lead the attack with the 26th Michigan in the van. It occurred that the 2nd Corps penetrated the main Confederate line smashing three Confederate brigades belonging to Edward Johnson’s division holding the toe of the Mule Shoe. Miles brigade hit the apex of salient on left side defended by John M. Jones’ Virginia brigade commanded by Colonel W.A. Witcher. John Gordon counterattacked by rushing three brigades from the western side of the salient into the path of the onrushing Federals, the shock blunting the blue momentum and throwing Barlow’s’ men out of part of the hard won objective. Burnsides' 9th Corps hit the salient from another direction as did Wright’s 4th Corps, but the heaviest casualties were suffered by men of the 2nd Corps and Barlow’s division in particular.
Batcheler stepped off and described the attack thusly: moving forward many a prayer was offered as none knew what their lot was to be. As we advanced firing became more general when the order charge was given bayonets were fixed with a yell. All plunged forward regardless of the deadly missiles that were flying in the air cutting down men on all sides. All seemed determined to avenge the disgrace brought upon our country and the groans of their comrades who had already fallen. The rebels could not stand before such a force moving with such determination and fled in confusion. We captured from 6 to 8 thousand prisoners and 39 pieces of cannon. After the rebels were driven they reorganized and drove back one position of our line who fell back for want of ammunition but the works were retaken and held. The rebels charged a number of times but were repulsed with great slaughter. The ground was completely covered with the dead and wounded.
Batcheler says he was wounded about a rod from the enemy’s works but the 26th Michigan regimental flag was carried into the Confederate line at the point of the bayonet, costing the Wolverines 139 men included Corporal Batcheler by the end of the day’s work. Batcheler’s fragment of flag carried into the Bloody Angle is found elsewhere in the sale. His map accurately shows the salient and the position of Barlow’s division with a fine ink line pointing to an area just to left of the apex where he fell.
Together, the map and lengthy letter represent a rare Michigan view of Spotsylvania, a campaign that cost Grant over 22,000 casualties between May 8 to May 18 and Lee about 9,000 irreplaceable men. (EST $1000-$1500)
Condition: Letter/journal pages becoming separated with several completely loose at beginning and end, entirely readable and otherwise undamaged, no cover or boards, VG. Hand-drawn map glued to board with three significant tears and resulting loss of paper, G. A straight-forward restoration possible. Small inked tag affixed to right side of shoddy walnut shadow box frame indicates a probable 1909 assembly, no cover glass.
Lot # 1374
CIVIL WAR CAMP NEWSPAPERS OF CORPORAL B. F. BATCHELER, 26TH MICHIGAN,
lot of 4 issues of Our Camp Journal, “published occasionally at the Headquarters of the 26th Michigan Volunteers by Lieut. L. D. Burch, Editor,” plus a copy picked up by Batcheler of the April 4, 1865 edition of the former Richmond Whig, “publication being resumed this afternoon with the consent of military authorities.”
Civil War Regimental newspapers in any form are considered rare given that they could only be published when in the security of camp or garrison for extended periods. Moreover, they are usually encountered in rather poor condition, “read-out” as it were from being passed from hand to hand or tipped to a scrapebook in pieces. Our Camp Journal is a superior example of the genre being a full size, multi-sheet paper typeset on a press (jobbed in Washington, D.C.) and utilizing exceptional woodblock graphics including topical portraits of newsworthy officers.
It is apparent that editor Burch had prior newspaper experience and, importantly, an educated readership willing to pay 5 cents, later 10 cents per copy. Our Camp Journal naturally focuses on recent war news including distant events in the western theater, regimental sketches from other units within the brigade and division, important news and anecdotes from the home front, general interest stories delivered with a dash of tongue-in-check humor, weather, updated rosters, and sadly, many obituaries. Interesting bits of trivia like a sword presentation to a lieutenant in the 57th N.Y. by members of Company I, likely the only such coverage in existence, are peppered throughout the pages.
The four copies are all Volume 1, Numbers 1, 3, 5, and 6 ranging from April 1863 to April 1864. Reflecting different duty assignments, No. 1 was published April 1, 1863 from a “Camp near Alexandria, Va.” No. 3 from “Ft. Richmond, Staten Island, N.Y., September 7, 1863.” No. 5 in winter quarters with the “Army of the Potomac, Va., January 15, 1864.” And No. 6 from “Headquarters, First Division, 2nd Army Corps, Va., April 1864.” All were saved by compulsive collector Corporal B.F. Batcheler, Company E, who is not mentioned in any of the articles, representing another unusual and rarely encountered facet of his extensive array of Civil War material. (EST $200-$300)
Condition: Newspaper complete but typically worn with folds and sundry minor tears, still near VG.
Lot # 1375
EDWIN BATCHELER'S 1864 SPEECH AGAINST TREASONABLE DEMOCRATS,
18pp hand-written in ink on half sheet lined paper bound with string, no boards. Notation in upper margin states, This address was prepared and delivered by Edwin Batcheler before a treasonable meeting held at the Browning Schoolhouse, Osceola, Livingston Co. Mich. in 1864. Five additional papers written by B.F. Batcheler are included in this lot.
Edwin Batcheler was the father of soldier Benjamin F. Batcheler of Osceola, Michigan whose extensive archive of 26th Michigan and 28th USCT artifacts are distributed throughout the sale. The elder Batcheler was an early Livingston County settler having located to Osceola in February 1837 from East Douglas, Massachusetts. A farmer, he briefly served as Justice of the Peace in 1839 but held no political aspirations or elected office. In 1860 Osceola was a small rural community numbering 1,084 souls that provided just 17 men for service in the Civil War. Michigan had voted overwhelmingly in favor of Lincoln and the Republican ticket in the election of 1860 with 57% of the popular vote and Osceola’s paltry contribution to the war effort should not necessarily be construed as a lack of public support. Browning was a rural log schoolhouse built in the fall of 1837 and named after the settler who had donated the land.
In Edwin Batcheler’s day formal oratory—“speechifying”—was a skill much practiced and keenly admired in a society that utilized the forum of public discourse as a means of examining and dissecting the pressing issues of the time, in much the same way as blogging affects public opinion and mass media today. 1864 was an election year and Batcheler’s lengthy discourse against treason was a pithy, calculated response to an earlier, unidentified Browning speaker who had advocated that the Republicans are responsible for this rebellion casting the party as the tool of Abolitionists. In eighteen pages Batcheler sought to repudiate, point by point, the position of the previous speaker who had advanced the idea that, …this is a nigger war, or in other words it is carried out by the government for the purpose of destroying slavery…to drive the slave owning states out of the Union. Batcheler cautions his audience and attributes such twisted thinking to secret traitors who are leaving no means untried to divide the people of the Loyal States, and bring Civil War in our midst. By “traitor” Batcheler means Democrats in general and Copperheads in particular.
As the war dragged into it’s fourth year Batcheler’s speech cannot be separated from the noxious, politically charged atmosphere of the day tinged with uncertainty, sorrow on the home front, and the prospect of still more casualties. He argues fundamentally that Democrats, not Republicans are to blame for the war as they were the party holding power during the preceding four decades as the sectional crisis first became manifest and then festered into open rebellion. Moreover, it was Democrats who consistently bowed to compromise to avert crisis, thereby encouraging slave holding interests with far western aspirations who grew emboldened, threatening to secede each time their territorial demands were not accommodated on the national scene. Batcheler is quick to drive home the point that the Republican Party did not even exist until 1856 and by then, thanks to Democratic ineptitude, the seed of rebellion had been allowed to germinate.
The first several pages are a recapitulation of 19th century United States history from the Nullification Crisis of 1832 to the Compromise of 1850. Batcheler is laudatory of illustrious men like Andrew Jackson (who was ready for war if South Carolina seceded) and Henry Clay but accusatory of their vapid Democratic predecessors who inherited the reigns of government, blaming them for the war by constantly caving to Southern threats and too willing to accommodate elitist Southern interests with legislation like the Fugitive Slave Act. Batchelor emphasizes that the repeal of the Missouri Compromise orchestrated by Democrats led to “Bloody Kansas” and ratcheted the confrontation between Free-Staters’ and “border ruffians.”
He adds that in 1856, John Fremont, the Republican nominee for President was defeated by a conspiratorial coalition of Northern and Southern Democrats who elected James Buchanan who he refers to as a lump of clay that they could mould to their liking. As for the prevailing Democratic contretemps that the prosecution of war solely to end slavery was “illegal and unconstitutional” (sound familiar?) Batcheler dismisses as braying: It’s unconstitutional…the universal cry at all times to cover their designs and mislead the people. Before Lincoln had even been elected in 1860, he says, it was the boisterous, menacing South that threatened again to secede from the Union and establish a Confederacy whose cornerstone should be slavery if the Republican nominee should be elected.
Once more he chastises Southern Democrats for highjacking the party platform and ransoming the peace of the land by demanding that Northern Democrats should come to their views or they would leave the convention and nominate a ticket of their own. He accuses both factions of the Democratic Party for starting the war admonishing his listeners, fellow citizens, it was in the power of the Democratic Party to have saved us from this terrible rebellion, but they refused to do it, and now their speakers with brazen face affrontery (sic) charge it upon the Republicans.
As Batchelor spoke the pivotal 1864 election loomed with General McClellan heading the Democratic ticket on a platform heavily influenced by Copperheads that called for the immediate cessation of hostilities and the restoration of peace based “on the basis of the Federal Union of States.” McClellan failed to capitalize on defeatism and in November the war weary Northern public handed Lincoln an electoral sweep 212-21, the fretting President winning by just 400,000 popular votes out of 4 million cast. Batcheler’s speech is a microcosm of the tangled forces that underlie the Civil War. The lot further includes five unrelated hand-written speeches written by B.F. Batcheler. Three deal with the subject of "Intemperance," one is a philosophical musing titled “Reason & Instinct” and the last is a historical piece called "John Brown and Slavery." (EST $300-$400)
Condition: Treason speech dog-eared lower right corner with fold in center and minor soiling, still G+ and entirely readable except for loss of text in corner. Other full page speeches with fold lines and minor age wear.
Lot # 1376
LARGE LT. B.F. BATCHELER, 28TH USCT DOCUMENT ARCHIVE,
comprising two loose-leaf binders full of typical administrative paperwork collected by Batcheler during his routine duties as a company grade officer from October 1864 to muster out in November 1865. The lot includes a total of 226 different military documents, mostly pre-printed standard army forms filled-in by Batcheler and other officials depending upon the department (ordnance returns, hospital receipts) and duty station (Richmond Provost Marshall), with a smaller amount of manuscript correspondence. Many of the documents are signed by Batcheler and run the gamut from "Abstracts, Monthly & Quarterly Returns, Descriptive Lists and Rolls to Receipts and Vouchers."
The most interesting documents are a group of "Railroad Transport Receipts" and "Hospital Death Notice’s/Death Certificate’s" issued by medical authorities accounting for deceased 28th USCT men and inventorying their government issue and personal property. One significant manuscript document is Batcheler’s own “Military Service of Self” inked in 1865. Collectively, the paperwork is fair representation of important but mundane army bureaucracy at the company level and must reflect a considerable portion of the actual paperwork that passed through Lt. Batcheler hands.
To give an idea of scope the documents breakdown into the following broad categories: 66 various receipts and vouchers ranging from pay to transport, 46 company abstracts, monthly & quarterly returns accounting for everything from pay to muskets on hand, 30 descriptive lists & rolls for individual and groups of enlisted soldiers with complete Company A, 28th USCT Muster Rolls accounting for those men “present, in hospital, on detached duty, etc.” 14 different “Special Orders” including many specifying Batcheler, 13 railroad transport receipts for individual soldiers going to/returning from duty, 12 quartermaster documents/applications drawing supplies, 7 copies of sundry enlisted discharges, 5 hospital death certificates/notices for men who expired in hospital (at least one black soldier who was wounded in battle and later died), 5 miscellaneous orders, 5 various inventories, 3 “General Orders” including one signed by Grant’s AAAG, 3 Adjutant General, Washington D.C. documents, 2 of Batcheler’s later pension claim documents, and one each of a military pass (Washington, D.C.), an attestation, special requisition, and template (showing the army way to properly list “papers for a dead soldier”). There are 10 additional loose envelopes and covers not counted as part of the 226 documents. We could find no autographs of particular value other than perhaps duplicates of one brevet brigadier general. (EST $2000-$3000)
Condition: Documents are housed in plastic sleeves, in generally VG to EXC condition, the larger Muster Rolls and Descriptive lists folded into thirds.
Lot # 1377
LIEUT. B.F. BATCHELER'S
comprising 6 paper documents dated 1866 and 1868, being Batcheler’s printed 10” by 14” Captain’s Commission with orange Boys in Blue seal, a large 18” by 23” partially printed muster roll for the “Fourth Regiment of the Fifth District” with names, former units and remarks entered in ink, a manuscript cover letter written to Batcheler from Headquarters Boy in Blue enclosing two blank 11” by 17” muster rolls for recruiting and a printed notice soliciting the manufacturer of “complete sets of uniforms” for his company.
Boys in Blue were a quasi-political association organized along military lines chartered in Detroit, Michigan on September 1, 1866. The group was composed of “patriotic Soldiers and Sailors of Michigan” and dedicated “to the grand principles for which we fought.” In the context of the time the Boys in Blue were decidedly against the moderate, even liberal Reconstruction polices adopted by the Johnson administration in keeping with the spirit of Lincoln’s own preferred approach. Already in 1866 Southern legislatures were enacting “Black Codes” that conflicted with the congressionally authorized Freedmen’s Bureau. Johnson had vetoed a bill designed to put teeth into the Bureau by allowing military courts in the South to try persons accused of depriving freedman of their civil rights. The bill was later passed over his veto. The ensuing Civil Rights Act granting citizenship to the Negro was also passed by Congress over Johnson’s veto. Also in 1866 the 14th Amendment was submitted for ratification, although at first rejected by all of the Southern states until mandated as a condition for restoration to the Union.
Invoking patriotism in memory of their fallen comrades, the Boys in Blue, who had just emerged from a successful war to defeat Southern tyranny, believed that the men they had soundly beaten on the battlefield were already back in control,“just unrepentant rebels.” Politically, the Boys in Blue allied themselves with the Radical faction of the Republican Party and stated clearly in their preamble that their goal was to repudiate the “the policies of President Johnson, whose avowed object is to reinstate traitors whom we fought to dispose.” The mobilization of like-minded veterans for a political cause created the additional advantage of numbers, meaning clout on the campaign trail.
The upper right of the blank muster roll dated August 17, 1868 carries a slate of “approved” candidates including Ulysses S. Grant for President with endorsements for a full state and congressional ticket for the “Campaign of 1868.” Batcheler himself was elected captain of the local Oceola Company in 1866 heading the top of the muster roll listing 35 other local veterans, two of whom had lost limbs in the war. (EST $200-$300)
Condition: Large Muster Rolls and Batcheler Commission EXC with fold lines. Two letter-sized documents with minor damage at bottom, with tattered yellow envelope.
Lot # 1379
CIVIL WAR ARCHIVE OF JOHN W. HUXLEY, U.S.N.,
includes a wonderfully hand-colored albumen full-length uniformed portrait with a young Huxley in officer's frock coat with sword and belt rig and cap resting on table to left, 5.25" x 7.25", laid on card stock marked Photographed by J.H. Young, Corner Charles & Baltimore Sts., Baltimore, in original gilt oval frame, 8.25" x 10.25", with typed and manuscript label pasted on rear with My Father John W. Huxley, Born October 11th 1838, Died February 10, 1907. This picture taken at the close of the Civil War. John Huxley. Also includes Huxley's M1849 Colt Pocket Revolver, serial number 44036, 5-shot .31 caliber, 6" long octagonal barrel with bead-type front sight, marked Address Saml. Colt New York City with round cylinder, silvered-plated brass trigger guard and grip straps, one-piece walnut grip; total length 11". Also includes a cdv album with 43 cdv images, most identified, including albumen of uniformed Huxley with imprint Garrett's Wilmington, Del.; PLUS an albumen cdv of uniformed Union Captain, identified on rear with period pencil inscription Capt. E. Hilles Talley Died in Hospital 186- with imprint of J.Q.A. Tresizie, Zanesville, Ohio; PLUS an initialed cdv of Union enlisted man, with Wilmington backmark, PLUS cdv of U.S. Grant with back mark of Wenderoth, Taylor & Brown, Philadelphia; PLUS cdv of Admiral David G. Farragut, with imprint of J. Gurney & Son, N.Y.; PLUS cdv of a John Rodgers statue entitled Taking The Oath, other cdvs of Matha & George Washington; PLUS 3 insurance policies for John W. Huxley Jr.; AND a cased gold-plated Masonic medal from Eureka Lodge to J.W. Huxley Jr.
Captain E. Hilles Talley enlisted in 1861 as Lt., promoted to Captain in Co. D, 78th Ohio Infantry, died in a hospital 4-4-62, two days before his unit was engaged at Shiloh. Includes printed soldier's and unit histories. (EST $2500-$3500)
Condition: Colt quite pitted and missing wedge, slight chip on grip, G+, colored albumen VG+, cdvs VG+, album worn with loose boards, Masonic medal is EXC, and insurance policies with normal folds and light, even toning.
Lot # 1380
CIVIL WAR ARCHIVE OF E.W. MOBERLY, SIXTH INDIANA INFANTRY,
Sgt. Elhanan W. Moberly Papers, 6th Indiana Infantry. 76 letters (60 soldier’s letters -- some written on reverse of letters from home), 8 home front, 7 pre-war, 1 post-war.
A veteran of the Mexican War and an experienced hand at fighting Indians in Texas during the 1850s, Elhanan Moberly enlisted under Col. T.T. Crittenden in the 6th Indiana Infantry in late August 1861, and was rushed into the service before the regiment was filled up. Born in Kentucky in April 1826, Moberly was older than most of his comrades, and leaving his wife and children at home, wrote regular, detailed descriptions of his marches, camp life, the routine activities of scouting, marching, ferrying the sick to the rear, and life in a filthy, filthy, drunken camp.
With his prior military experience, early on, Moberly learned the ropes. On one of his first scouts in Confederate territory, he wrote, We took a sesacean [secession] store and the house. I was not at the taking of the store but I did go in the house. I got a good many things think that our enemies ought to pay the experiences of the war therefore we took from the house all we kneeded. I got one spy glass, one shocking machine, one case of Dental instruments, one regions do., one quilt, one fife, one Butcher knife, some other things to tedeous to mention. The owner of these things is in the southern army (Sept. 26, 1861).
Facing Confederate forces, guerrillas, and an often-hostile populace, the 6th was in a tense situation. December 1861, along the Green River in Kentucky, he was nearby when his German fellow Indianans took part in a sharp engagement: The principle of the fighting was done by 600 of the Indiana 32nd under Welish’s (Willich’s) Dutch Regt. We was clost enough to hear the cannon firing, & by the time we got here they was bringing in the wounded. 3 came along our lines as we had just stoped… there is eleven dead bodies just within a few rods of our camp that was killed in the engagement… the soldiers that had the fight sayes they have got 90 of the enemy piled up in a pile on the other side of the river (Dec. 18, 1861). A week later, the 6th came under fire while pursuing rebels: some Regular Troops went to our left when we came up near the pike Bridg they commenced firing upon us or rather General Rousseau, & staff as they was in the advance they fired 70 shots the distance 500 yds or near that. The Adjutant Dunlap of the Louisville Legeon was wounded shot through the thighs just through the top of the saddle only through the flesh. Our Regts Flag was called for & rushed forward when the attacking party saw the Flag they ceased firing. The bullets whistled over our heads brisk for a little while…
Perhaps because of his previous experience, Moberly could be harshly critical of his regiment, particularly the hygiene. I have soldiered before, he wrote. saw extravagance and filth. This Army beats anything that I ever saw. Filthy as filth can be. Nearly all seems to act as though they thought that the destruction of Government property was no loss at all to Government or anyone else… (Jan. 19, 1862). The regiment, he insisted, was as ill disciplined as they were dirty, and he relays an incident in which some non-commissioned officers tore off their stripes and refused to serve, while others drank themselves into foolishness. The regiment’s neighbors did not fail to notice: Our nearest neighbor is more zelous in the Southern cause. He has 2 sons at Chicago, & seems to think that these will be a division in the north because he hears the soldiers say they are & will not fight after the government at Washington passes any act freeing the negro (April 27, 1862). In an equally telling incident, Moberly writes that he saw a soldier in hospital who had cut off his own fingers: I loked at the fingers was cut on the inside & cut in 2 place, first caut the fore fingers was cut about half off, the other finger about one fourth off. We can not find any one that can tell any thing about the cutting off the fingers off. To me thinks or least say they ought to go home home. I hear it said today that there is an embargo layed upon any going away. By February 1862, the strain was taking its toll, though he remained optimistic that the war would be won. The war has not lasted a year yet, he wrote, and we have passed through many scenes, but I exclaim. In the name of good morals, sound learning, exact science, and the fine arts we have not been proved sufficiently. We must for another heroic year or two lay on the cold bed, eat the cold apples at night, and potatoes and the tough steak in the morning, drink the boot-heel coffee and the straw tea, and through slush and sleet and snow and slime plod our way to triumph. The end of the rebellion is to be read, perhaps, more sur[e]ly in the raving ferosity of the rebel speeches and papers than in any other way…. (Feb. 6, 1862)
Perhaps Moberly’s irritation at regimental hygiene was well founded. In March 1862, he fell ill, was separated from his regiment, and treated in hospital more like a hog than a sick man. As a result of his illness, he was at Munfordville, Ky., while his regiment performed heroically at Shiloh, though he recovered sufficiently to rejoin the 6th as it joined the Siege of Corinth, where he wrote: The rebels did considerable to the Town of Corinth by burning many of the buildings, & property the town is very scattering in the Post. Oaks much like Dallas Texas, & had formerly few exceptions. Some women, & negroes coming in to the filthy place… After Corinth was captured, the regiment forged into northern Alabama, but were soon cut off from their supply lines and forced onto half rations: Well wife, he wrote, Much soldiering hath made me sharp yea even the seat of my Panteloons is in danger of being cut through. Then some evening on return from dres perade there will be displayed a white Flag. We have had to draw our rations at the Comisary, & seems to be satisfied. Our Comisary has subsided since the Cracker line has been cut off so the satisfaction seemeth not so great since we have to b[u]y our rations, and some times when I see a Hogg I am almost tempted to shoot it an declare its face looked so much like the face of some of these Ala. seches I could not help shooting. I have not saw a woman since we left Iuka but what had a face just like a brier spliter, or big field hogg all lanterned jawed, hagerd cowntanances. The porkers is not in very good order or I might seem to retire and at the same time bring in something to eat… (July 22, 1862).
When he did see women, he was no less thrilled. Stationed near Nashville, he had continuing run ins with the local populace: I was several times on yesterday insulted by the women of Nashville at a very fine residence a young woman made mouths at me at 3 different times as I was passing by So I concluded that I would resent the insult. I got 2 soldiers to go with me as we neared the house she discovered us coming & commenced grimacing, & making mouths as usual we proceed until we came to the gate that entered the year I opened the gate, and asked the men to walk in they did so the young woman darted in the House, shut the door after her. We walked up to the door I took hold the bell knob, and rang the bell rang the 2nd time; the young woman came to the door & opened it at the same time asking us what we wanted. I asked her if she kept a whore house here she screamed and scampered off in great haste. We stood there directly, the Father, & Mother came, & seemed to be much agitated asking us what we wanted in a very premtory tone. I asked them if they kept a whore house. The old man said no. I told him to take in the sine…. This morning before leaving town I saw a Negro, & white boy fighting. The white boy was going to stick the negro with a knife just as I was opposite them in the street. I told him not to knife the negro. He on hearing that quit the negro and made at me. I knocked him down with my gun. By that time there was a woman at the door or a house near by me. By this time the boy had got up, & was making his way to the house. The Rebel bi[t]ch began to advance she geathered a stone as she same she threw it with all the might she could just at that time I stooped and picked up a stone from the street let drive with it at her striking the corner bord of the house… I stood in the street for a short time with my gun cocked expecting some other attack. None came… (May 26, 1862).
Moberly never fully recovered from his illness, and was hospitalized late in the year. He died in hospital in December 1862.
The collection includes several handsome patriotic covers and letterheads including ones depicting George Washington; Washington on a horse; Lady Liberty and “Onward to victory;” Ellsworth; the School of the Fire Zouave; patriotic eagles; a full cover envelope with Washington and a Zouave; a comic view of Jeff Davis going to war and returning; and others. There is, as well, a scarce regimental issue envelope for the 32nd Indiana -- 1st German Vols. At least five letters were written on the back of printed Confederate requisitions “for forage for public horses, mules, and oxen,” evidently confiscated by Moberly, and he includes an excellent pencil sketch of a tall railroad bridge, drawn for his young son.
Although the Moberly correspondence covers barely more than a year of the war, it documents his entire period of service with regular, long, and well-written (though poorly spelled) accounts. (See also Lots 1738 and 1757 for Moberly's Mexican War and Service in Texas.) (EST $2500-$3500)
Condition: Generally good condition, with expected wear and tear and age toning.
Lot # 1381
CIVIL WAR DIARY OF FRANKLIN YIKE, 87TH INDIANA,
for the year 1865. 12mo pocket diary clad in green oil-cloth, with a stamp on the back inside cover for "F. Yike."
Franklin Yike, a native of Chili, Indiana (in the North Central part of the state near Peru and Denver) was mustered into service in Co C of the 87th in August of 1862, and served continuously until June, 1865. This diary covers his last (half) year of service.
The 87th was sent nearly due south after its organization, taking part in Buell’s Kentucky campaign. Most of its engagements in 1863 were in Tennessee, in the area of Chattanooga, and then to Georgia to take part in the Battle of Chickamauga, and back to the siege of Chattanooga. With the reorganization of the Army of the Cumberland, it became part of the 2nd brigade, 3d division, 14th corps and was engaged at Missionary Ridge, Dalton and Buzzard Roost. It joined the Atlanta movement in May, participating in numerous skirmishes throughout northern GA and AL and southern TN. The end of 1864 found the unit at Savannah, where they remained through January of 1865, and where Pvt. Yike picks up this diary.
Everyday begins (each “mourning”) with the weather, usually a mention of whether they get “male.” Much of the early part of the diary has very light ink. It appears as though the oilcloth cover did not do much to protect the pages from the elements. This coupled with his clearly rural education, makes parts of the diary nearly unreadable: (4 Jan 1865) to day killpatric revues his caverly divition in town this mourning we draw clothing for the first since our arivel here at Savannah to day we had Brigade drill this afternoon the 14 Army Corps moves by boat transportation. As usual, what they are told will happen and its coming to fruition are two different things. It takes more than 2 weeks to move the unit. (18 Jan 1865) parts of the 19 Army Corps arrived here at Savannah this afternoon I am in town to day we have the news of the capter of ford fisher with 70 canon and 1180(?) prisners [Fort Fisher, NC, just outside Wilmington]. And then they celebrate: (19 Jan) today there was a salute of 36 guns firied in Savannah for the capter of ford fisher.
They finally move to North Carolina, chasing the "anemy" all the way: (17 Feb.) the river was 360 feet wide where we crossed the 17 Army Corps took Columby and burned that town. (18 Feb) the boys found 78000 dollars of burned money to day. (22 Feb) to day we march to the Columba and Charlotteville RR and stop at vains borow longenough for the to plunder and Burn the town then we move on the watevll church and camp.
From here on out, this is a unit on the move, and the spring rains have begun. This leg of the journey seems to have been relatively uneventful as far as battles go, but their foragers were captured at one point. Yike has the usual complaints of mud, rain, and more mud. Unfortunately, he, too, was witness to the usual punishment for serious transgressions: (31 March) to day at 1 pm privet _____ was shot to Death for commiting anabe(?) [maybe arabe - a rape?] at Kinston South Carolina he belonged to the 12 Regt. new york caverly. Although he does not mention Lee's surrender, the day before, they get enough good news to celebrate: (8 April) the boys are having quite a Jubelee of dansing and throwing up skirockets and bursting cantiens(?) over the victories won by the Estreen army .
But their misery is not yet over. They begin the march to Washington, often more than 20 miles a day: (6 May) we wend in to camp 26 miles frome Richmond to day we marched 26 ¼ miles to night we draw one days rations our Brigade lost two men to day by sun pain both of them fell sensles marching along. They arrive in time for the Grand Review: (26 May) [unfortunately the entry has scribbles all over it] Move out at 7 am for revue in Washington at 1am(?) we march in revue by the White House we crossed the long Bridge going into town and recrossed the potomac near george town. (1 June) [part crossed out] Consiquentily all puplic business is stoped in Washington. this is Thanksgiving day by order of president Johnsen.
A few more days of reorganization: (3 June) Maj. Gen. G H Thomas and Gen Brenen revues our Div this evening the 105 Ohio vols inft regt starts home. (7June) The 75 ind Regt was mustred out of the servis to day. (8 June) the 75 ind Regt. starts home this afternoon. Our Recruits and Suptitutes goes to the 42 ind Regt. And they prepare to do the same: (9 June) this evening the boys of our regt. charged on our Brig Sutler they were successful and cleend him in tirely. (11 June) we were musterd out of the US Service by Capt Cline.
They start for home within a couple days, first by rail, then steamer. (15 June) we get on bord the Steemer J T picket at parkersburg and come down to buffingston landing here an changed pasage on the stemer empire City She floted at 12 M at 1pm she ankerd awaiting moonlite to floote. He mentions arriving at “Cincinnatia” and later at Lawrenceburg where the locals prepared food for them. They then board the train for Indianapolis. (17 June) arrived here at indianapolis at 7½ am and got breckfest at the Soldiers rest to day we turned our fire arms over and our camp and garison equipidge over this evening half of Co C went home this afternoon moved in baricks in camp carington this evening we drew one days rations. Not until the 24th do they receive their pay and discharges and head home.
Private Yike returns to civilian life at 9pm the following day, and for the most part gave up on the diary. Although he makes no mention of Lincoln in April of 1865 (the unit was moving so quickly, news may have missed them until they got nearly to Washington), on one of the "Memoranda" pages in the back of the diary is: The following is the Discription of the silver plate on the president coffin. Abraham Lincoln sixteenth president of the United States. Born July 12th 1809. Died April 15th 1865. (EST $200-$300)
Condition: Extensive wrinkling from water and heaving toning on top half of pages. Several pages separated from binding near center, but they do not contain entries. Surface flaking from oilcloth.
Lot # 1382
CIVIL WAR LETTER ARCHIVE OF JOHN W. BOSTON, 81ST OVI, PLUS,
John W. Boston Papers, 1862-1865. 81st Ohio Infantry Regiment. Co. G. 125 soldier’s letters, ca 100 family letters, mostly post-war, plus his Springfield musket.
Organized in Allen and nearby counties in northwestern Ohio in August and September 1861, and staged at Benton Barracks, the 81st Ohio Infantry entered into action early and seldom strayed far from combat during their entire service. The regiment was engaged for two days at Shiloh and suffered heavily in the charge on the second day, and when they followed up at Corinth, they lost still more, with 11 killed in action and 44 wounded. From their sortie into Alabama during the Spring of 1863, through the Atlanta Campaign, the March to the Sea, and the March through the Carolinas, the 81st performed yeoman’s service until they were mustered out in July 1865.
John Boston was neither the most literate soldier in the war, nor the easiest to like. Almost thirty when he joined the regiment in September 1862, he was patriotic, opinionated to the point of bigoted, yet pious.
To wife from Corinth, Miss., in late fall early winter 1862: you mus try and get as fat as you can Before I come home for the only woman kin that I se[e] is the cursed Nigger wenches and I hate them worse that ever. I onc and a while se[e] the glimps of a white woman But not often… I confess that I would like to be there [with his wife] But I Believe it to Be the Duty of Every Manan to try and Save his Country from Ruin if he can and I do not know how he can other than to ofer him self in the half of it eaven if it costs his life.
Boston’s letters include numerous accounts of engagement with Confederate forces. In one of his first encounters in February 1862, he described a tense night of picket duty: There was 3 men tried to pass me and to get inside of our lines, he wrote, for the purpose of burning the mills of this place. I challenged them to halt. I had my gun cocked before I challenged them and I immediately fired my gun at them as best I could. But think that I did not hit any of them. Particularly during their time in Alabama and eastern Tennessee, the regiment was confronted with guerrillas and other irregulars. Just before Christmas 1862, for example, he described an incident that fell close to home and that came to a novel ending: our boys went out a week ago and caught some 70 rebels among whom was 3 lieutenants and a lot of guerillas and some 17 or 20 rebels from the army of Tennessee that were home on a furlough to their homes among whom was a Rebel lieutenant he is a native of Jackson Co. Ohio. he went south a year ago to operate on the telegraph and when the rebellion broke out he went in the rebel army as a lieutenant he was taken prisoner by his won first cousin in our cavalry and the day before yesterday tried to make his escape from Corinth but was captured at the picket lines and brought to Corinth and a 64 pound canon ball tied or rather chained to his foot and all the way that he can walk is to carry the 64 pound cannon ball in his arms.
Though on a smaller scale than they had seen at Shiloh or would see later, the fighting in Alabama during the spring 1863 was fierce. At the Battle of Town Creek in April, Boston’s regiment went after a force of Confederates and had a little fight… between some of our sharpshooters and the 1st Alabama Cavalry and some 600 rebels from Braggs army and our boys were victorious driving the Rebels off. The Rebels had 6 pieces of artillery with them but did not use them at all for they thought to draw our men out in the open field but could not do it. Our men had 2 pieces of artillery and they fired 6 rounds at the rebels and several vollies of infantry when the gallant 1st Alabama Cavalry made a gallant charge which put them to flight. We lost 6 killed and 30 wounded and one or 2 prisoners at the break of dawn a sharpshooter on picket shot and the pickets then fell back when the fight then commenced in earnest and I tell you that it was brisk for a few minutes till our artillery opened on them and some say that the Rebels lost some 30 killed. We have the Rebel communication cut off and we then will make them howl with hunger worse than ever. But the knowing of hunger will make them fight like Demons for the plunder of our Army stores and supplies that we will take along with us. Under the command of Gen. Grenville Dodge, they continued to wreak havoc in the northern part of the state for a month, burning railroad bridges and taking hundreds of prisoners, including a number from the command of Nathan Bedford Forrest whom they took when freeing some of their own.
Like many federal soldiers facing the daily threat of guerrillas, Boston grew frustrated with his nemesis. they wont stand and fight like men, he complained, but will skulk and hide around in the brush and then they will pounce on a few men that might chance to come along they are a set of cold blood murderers I call them. Some of them will come in to our lines and take the oath find out how our pickets are posted then crawl up and try to kill them. The response was equal brutality: Our men don't take many prisoners. When they take a guerilla they tell him to run for his life and as soon as he starts to run give him a pop and let him lay for his friends to bury if they find him. The Union men of the South are worse than our men six times over for they know every one of them. The guerillas burned a culbert on the rail road the other day and the order is to burn every house that is not known to belong to a Union man for the distance of 5 miles of the rail road in this case there was some 30 dwellings destroyed.
Although the scene quieted for the regiment during the summer and fall of 1863, the 81st performed heavy duty, with occasional forays against the enemy. In August, he wrote, we go the intelligence of the successful raid of our mounted men under Colonel Phillips of the 9th Illinois he had command of the 9th Illinois regiment 13th Illis. Cavalry 11th Illinois cavalry 8th Michigan Cavalry 2 pieces of artillery they were all under the command of Lt. Colonel Phillips of the 9th Illinois mounted infantry they took and destroyed 70 locomotives belonging to the Rebels the reason that they destroyed them 65 locomotives in running order and 500 passenger cars and box cars.
The quiet ended, however, in May 1864, when the regiment joined in the Atlanta Campaign, fighting steadily, but with comparatively light loss at Rome Cross Roads, Dallas, and Atlanta itself. In June, Boston boasted that the regiment was driving them all the time without any severe loss to us. Today we took 325 prisoners. we have taken a good a number of prisoners and a good many deserters ones I don't wonder that they desert for we out flank them all the time. His letter from the Battle of Atlanta, July 22, is particularly valuable: we have just had a severe battle. we fought Hardees whole Corp our two divisions of the 16 army corp and a part of the 17th in from the field with great slaughter. We lost considerable but they lost 4 to one of us. The loss of killed and wounded in our Regiment was as now ascertained was 66 we lost over 200 in our brigade. There was only our regiment and the 12th Illnois and the 66 Illnois & the 9th Illinois being mounted was not in the engagement. We fought them for 3 hours, right in the open field and drove them to a thick undergrowth and there they stood for some time but our artillery kept playing on them with grape and canister and shell after the fight was over some of our men went into the woods and they said that they were piled up thick some fell across one and another and after we had to double quick about three miles to the right of us for the 15th Corp was drove out of their breastworks and were not able to retake them. Our brigade double quicked our general Smith had the hardest kind of work to get his men to go back with us but we did go and we retook the works with small loss to us. There was also 15 pieces of artillery lost by the 15th army Corp all of which we retook in the charge. Our regiment lost one commissioned officer the first lieutenant of company K was killed in the charge.
Two weeks later, Boston was suffering from the soldier’s nightmare, dysentery, providing a classic description of an unmentionable complaint: it is not very pleasant to have the dysentery and be laying in the front ditches with the Rebels not over 200 hundred yards in our front and the balls fly very fast in our rear and sometimes it is hard to the sinks, I had to go 8 or 10 times last night and a good many times today. Despite his complaints, the war went on: we have now commenced the siege of Atlanta we are now fixing up our heavy guns and we are only about of a mile from town and we are also fixing up a furnace to heat shot red hot to throw in to the town and it is also reported that they are going to throw Greek fire into the town. As the city fell, the regiment went on a 15-day march to destroy railroads that Boston we did in a most successful manner driving everything before us and by cutting the Rebel army in the middle.
Communication during the March to the Sea, of course, was essentially nil, but once they approached Savannah, Boston reported that they had succeeded in opening communication with the sea, having traveled 300 miles with hardly any fighting… We have the Rebels entirely cut off from any communication and have cut the Confederacy in 2 halves, destroying all the rail roads in our road and in several instances going 15 or 20 miles to accomplish our work and we are not going to be in a hurry about taking Savannah for we think that we can starve them out and not lose many men.
A few days later he crowed that Savannah had fallen with out hardly a struggle. The collection includes a small number of late-war letters providing slender details of the March through the Carolinas, the Grand Review in Washington, and mustering out.
The collection is rounded out by approximately 100 family letters, predominantly post-war, with a few mentions of veterans. All in all a fine collection for a typical soldier in Sherman’s army, a rough-hewn Ohioan with a rough hewn pen.
Included with the letters is Boston's 1862 Springfield Percussion Musket, .50 caliber, 39" barrel. Lockplate with worn stamping 1862 US Springfield. Left sideplate region stamped in the wood U.S./D/64. Complete with two swivel rings. (EST $3000-$5000)
Condition: A few envelopes, and generally good condition with expected evidence of handling and wear and evidence of unfortunate penmanship. Springfield has a nice plum brown barrel with light oxidation forming and weathered breech area. Wood with heavy dings and mars and heavily weathered in the buttstock region. All other metal surfaces with oxidation forming. Lacking ramrod.
Lot # 1383
CIVIL WAR DIARY OF ALEXANDER H. MULLIGAN, 127TH NY,
pocket diary with flexible red leather covers, flap closure, marbled page edges. Front pages have list of company D members, with himself listed as one of 5 Sergts. According to Civil War Database, Mulligan enlisted as a private and was promoted to Sergt. in early 1863 (est.). He then adds notes about the status of the men in his lists: wounded (or killed) Bat H.H. Dec. 6 1864, possibly Honey Hill, where the unit suffered heavy losses. Then he lists the original members of the unit and the fate of many of them, followed by mottoes of the states, Latin and French phrases, and other general information. Several blank pages have been left, presumably for additional information, then a penciled diary with the beginning date of 10 Sept. 1862.
Most entries are short and some days are skipped entirely, especially early. [We suspect these were copied from another diary or scraps of paper on which he kept sporadic notes. It seems very clean compared to many Civil War diaries that have passed through our hands.] It becomes more consistent in late April-early May of 1863 (maybe he took his diary more seriously along with his new responsibilities). Although most entries are short, a few run considerably longer. Many are statements of movement or activities such as Dug Rifle pits or Cutting down trees on the Banks of the Potomac River, with few of the typical complaints that enlisted men tend to express in these diaries. Toward the middle and end of 1864, however, he does have the usual descriptions of Confederate deserters. A few interesting notes: (8 Jan. 1864) went to the Academy seen Booth as Othello and on the 15th he saw Booth as MacBeth.
In early February of 1864 Mulligan switched to ink. The nature of the entries also changed. (29 Feb. 1864) Got mustered in for two months Pay. (5 March) I am now up in our Lookout. from here I can see Charleston and Fort Sumpter very plain. the Rebels are now relieveing their Posts. I can see them. I have charge of 12 men & 2 Corps at this Post. (15 April) about 100 men under Capt. Gurney went over to Battery Island. a Torpedo exploded and wounded 4 men of the 127th Regt. the Gunboats went up the Stones River and Shelled the Rebels. (13-14 May) the expedition returned the reconnoissance proving successful. but failed to Capture the Johnnies. went on Picket Duty Fort Putnam. Chatfield Seymour & 2 Monitors opened fire on Fort Sumter. they hit it about 100 times. Bombardment still going on. all the Rebels Forts & Battery opened on our Forts & Monitors. (15th) all quiet no firing (16th) Bombardment commenced again.
Mulligan was mustered in for another 2 months on 30 June 1864. He notes the preparations for the assault on Fort Johnson for the next couple days. The attack of 3 July warrants 4 pages. He describes the delay in the boats getting out because of the tide, the alerted sentries at the fort and the fact that by the time the boats arrived it was daylight and the boats were easy targets. [T]here appeared to me to be about 20 guns firing, Grape Cannister, Shrapnel, Shell and all other deadly missiles just as quick as they could load and fire.... The boats fell back, and Major Little (127th) asked for volunteers to go ashore. [T]he boys of Co. D. 127 responded to his appeal and were in the act of rowing to the shore when the order to retreat was given by the Majors of the 52nd Penna. Major Little cried like a child when he knew that the project was a failure....Col. Hoyt and 6 Officers, 132 men (of the 52nd PA Vols.) were taken Prisoners. The expedition would have been successful had the tide been favorable and a more suitable place or embarking the troops at.... And one of his few complaints: I am sorry to say that some of our Officers did not display much evidence of bravery, but took matters very alarmingly for their own Safty.
On 4 July, Anniversary of our Glorious Independence. Salutes were fired from Forts Wagner, Shaw, Putnam, Chatfield & Green. The Rebels did not fire one shot all day. Genl. Schemelfenig commenced operations in front of secessionville, Capturing over 100 Prisoners and 4 Field pieces. He mentions in his 2 August entry that while on the picket boats in the harbor, 2 Union Officers Prisoners made their escape from Charleston after 15 months imprisonment they gave themselves up to No. 5 Picket boat. 1 was Capt. and the other Lieut. belonging to the 3rd Ohio Vols. Infantry.
Mulligan was granted a 30 leave in mid-October and by late November is still in New York, relating the Confederate attempt to burn down New York City. A most dastardly attempt was made to Burn the city. The St. Nicholas, Metropolitan, Astor, Frenchs, 5th Ave. Lovejoys, Hofffman, Tammany Hall, Gramercy Park Hotel and Barnums Museum were the principal places that were fired. in every case there was Phosphoros found in the room where the fire originated. The damage was very slight in all the cases.... In late Jan. there are references to receiving answers from the War Dept. and from the State of New York, but it is not clear what the issue was, although before he left, there was a recommendation for his appointment to the 21st USCT. He was appointed Lieut. of the 103rd USCT on 12 April 1865. The diary ends at this point. Maybe he forgot to take it with him when he returned to active duty? Although a 3-year unit, the 103rd was mustered out in June.(EST $2000-$3000)
Condition: Scuffing of the covers, but the inside is surprisingly clean, particularly if it spent any time in the field.
Lot # 1384
CIVIL WAR ARCHIVE OF LUTHER HOPKINS 6TH VIRGINIA CAVALRY,
Luther W. Hopkins Papers, 1900-1918; 181 items.
A teenager when the Civil War erupted, Luther W. Hopkins enlisted for duty in one of the most famous of all Confederate regiments, J.E.B. Stuart’s 6th Virginia Cavalry, serving from the beginning of the war to the bitter end in the eastern theatre. As the eyes of Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia, the 6th saw action in nearly every major engagement, from Bull Run through Gettysburg and Yellow Tavern to Appomattox, and except for a brief period when he was a prisoner of war, Hopkins saw it all.
Settling in Baltimore after the war, Hopkins enjoyed success as both a commission agent and a professional veteran. An active member of the United Confederate Veterans and other similar organizations, he kept up a steady correspondence with his old comrades in arms and worked hard as an historian to create the memory of their experiences. The Hopkins collection reflects the years during which Hopkins was actively involved in writing his memoir From Bull Run to Appomattox, and it includes a suite of letters from admiring readers on both sides of the Mason Dixon line, promotional materials relating to the book, and the original manuscript itself.
The letters from admiring old veterans provide insight into the development of the myth of the Confederate soldier and the creation of the white southern mind, and for many of the writers, Hopkins’ book evoked the strong ties that bind all Civil War vets. A veteran of the 4th Virginia Cavalry, for example, sent a copy of his own memoir as a Christmas greeting to one of those ragged Rebs who is my friend whether I ever met him or not; a Mississippi vet wrote that reading Hopkins’ book has created that spirit of affinity which unites two hearts that beat as one, while in a long (6p.) letter, a former guard at the federal Old Capitol Prison, wrote that he read and re-read [Hopkins’ book] until you and I were old friends.
A number of letters refer to the continuing need for national reconciliation and insist upon the valor of every veteran. John F. Hamlin, principal of the Leicester Academy in Massachusetts, for example: Your book is especially interesting to me because it gives me an insight into the thoughts, ambitions, and motives of those on the other side. There has been too much of the ‘rebel’ and ‘slavedriver’ idea injected into the minds of the Northern youths. They need to realize that you were fighting for a cause which you deemed as sacredly right as the ancestors of those Northern youths did in the Revolution. Bennnet Young, Lt. Gen. of the UCV Army of Tennessee, was more florid: After all, it was the man who carried the gun in the Confederate army who was the great man. It was the chivalrous boys of Virginia who made Stonewall Jackson; it was the gallant sons of Virginia who made Stuart successful; it was the well-bred Tennesseans, Mississippians, Kentuckians and Alabamans that made Forrest illustrious; it was the courageous grandsons of Virginia -- sons of Kentucky -- who gained Morgan his renown…. One of the last letters in the collection, written during the First World War, was from the map publisher J.L. Smith, who has learned of Hopkins’ illness: my advice is don’t go out too soon… as good Rebs are scarce now. Lee, Longstreet, Alexander, Ewell, & many other bright lights have left us… this great world war the meanest Reb never got down as law as Bill the Kaiser & the war has done the South much good.
Many letters include valuable commentary on the writers’ own experiences during the war. The Union prison guard, for example, reminisced about meeting W.H.F. Lee and a blockade runner and family as prisoners, while the 3 letters from another Union vet, John G. Clark (5th Wisconsin), include an extensive account of his own experiences at Malvern Hill and his contempt for George McClellan, whom he insists was not with the troops at critical moments during the Campaign, but rather on a gunboat. Confederate memories were equally sharp. The six letters from Hopkins’ old comrade Tip Peake include comments on a lengthy (4pp.) account of what had become of their old comrades since the war and his memories of Stonewall Jackson’s marches after 2nd Bull Run. The thoughts of those old days, he wrote, makes me feel nearer and nearer to the old confederate solider. It seems the older I get, the more I think, and the more I love the confederate soldier. When I look at your picture taken in 1861 and just as you looked when I first saw you; it makes me say oh for my boyhood again…. (1909) There are, as well, reminiscences (6p.) from a Confederate soldier (1917) who fought the Yankees from the first smoke at first Bull Run to his wounding at Five Points, including a brief account of Brandy Station and of leading his troops into Gettysburg, where they were the first troops entering.
As a writer and historian, Hopkins also received more formal writings. The collection includes a fine 3p. typed account of the Battle of Yellow Tavern and the wounding of his old commanding officer J.E.B. Stuart, written by a frequent correspondent, James R. Oliver, a Marylander who served in Co. K, 1st Va. Cav. Oliver also sent a 2p TLS Cy memoir regarding his capture at Hartwood Church in 1863. Coming from a Union state, Oliver was singled out and was to be sent for a show trial for treason, until, he wrote, Abraham Lincoln intervened and stopped the proceedings. Hopkins had a particular interest in the life and death of Confederate General Lewis Addison Armistead. The collection includes copies of two memoirs regarding Armistead (1910), who was mortally wounded leading Pickett’s Charge at Gettysburg. Several other items relating to Armistead, there are two letters from Bowles Armistead, Lewis’ brother, clarifying that Lewis had never fought on the Union side at Bull Run or anywhere else.
Of particular interest are letters from the relatives of Confederate celebrities, including:
· Flora Stuart, wife of J.E.B. Stuart, writes regarding the horses her husband rode (1909 April 8)
· 2 letters of Joseph R. Anderson, president of VMI and son of Gen. J.R. Anderson, C.S.A. receives the book
· Interesting 2pp. ALS from G.W.C. Lee (1909, what a name) regarding the death, burial, and resurrection of Robert E. Lee’s famous warhorse Traveler and Jackson’s Sorrel, who was alive when Lee last saw hi in 1897.
· 2 2p ALS from Robert E. Lee the son (1909) thanking Hopkins for his book and kind words for his own history of his father.
· Two letters of vet and historian James K. Hosmer, thanking Hopkins for explaining how it was the Lee sent Stuart for far away at Gettysburg, leaving Hosmer with a better impression of Joe Hooker’s generalship.
Nice TLS from the renowned historian Charles F. Adams, who graciously allows Hopkins to use quotes from a speech he had given, apparently relating to Lee’s decision to join the rebellion.
Although there are only about half a dozen letters written by Hopkins in the collection, each of these is interesting. Foremost among these is a fascinating reply to an apparently critical letter from a Massachusetts reader: I cannot believe that you are as black as you paint yourself. I think you like to tease us down here. We, however, don’t mind it. If it entertains you to call us rebels and traitors, and upholders of slavery, we can stand it. In fact, it amuses us more than it annoys us. The use of such terms as applied those who took sides with the South in your battle for constitutional rights will, if persisted in lose their significance and becomes words of commendation. Who can make traitors of such men as Davis, Lee, Stevens and their kind? If John Brown and his co-adjutors are to be called patriots, call us by some other name, please… You say that Virginia fought for African slavery and that slavery was to be the corner stone of the Southern Confederacy. You either know better, or you are in total ignorance of the facts. Virginia was the foremost state in the Union to fight against the continuance of the African slave trade… In a letter to F.A. Sanborn, Hopkins writes: I see that you still presist in walking through the pages of history arm in arm with John Brown. Well, as the old women said who kissed the cow, ‘There is no accounting for taste.’ Your defense of John Brown maybe very agreeable to you, but I am quite sure your descendants will blush with shame when they find you associating with such a character… His pugnacious style comes through in a letter in which he assails a letter in the NY Herald from a Frenchman that assailed the guards at Andersonville. Hopkins requesting the UCV to write a reply stating that all guards were honorable Confederate soldiers, but he also suggests attacking the Herald for having the temerity to print the letter in the first place.
To Confederates, Hopkins was apparently less combative. In a TL Cy to Confederate Gen. L. L. Lomax, 1911, regarding Lomax’s memories of Gettysburg, Hopkins relays his own thoughts on the Battlefield monuments -- I had no conception of its vast extent and the great expense the Government has gone to preserve it and embellish it with monuments and tablets, etc. I have no doubt that a thousand years from now it will still be a Mecca that every one will wish to visit -- and his recollections of the retreat from the battle, in which he guarded the wagon train that was retreating over the Chambersburg road… we turned off this road into what seemed to be a mountain road which we traveled several miles and were attacked… by Kilpatrick’s cavalry… The collection also includes several examples of Hopkins’ more formal historical work, including: type written accounts of Capt. W. J. Randolph’s (a veteran of Stonewall Jackson’s bodyguard) account of the wounding of Jackson at Chancellorsville (19pp.); a Southern apologetic for Andersonville (5p.); “Chapter 13, The Army Mule” (16pp.); “Stonewall Jackson and his allies” (22pp.); “Death of Stonewall Jackson” (14pp.); and “General R. E. Lee’s War-horse” (5pp.). There is, as well, the original typescript of From Bull Run to Appomattox (121pp.), which includes a typescript of Civil War experiences of his brothers John (4pp.) and Richard (25pp.), both of whom served under John S. Mosby in the Shenandoah Valley. Also promotional materials related to the book (printed reviews, correspondence) and two printing blocks, one a portrait of Stuart, the other apparently of an army mule.
Hopkins’ affiliation with Confederate veterans’ groups and his interest in the history of the war is well represented in the collection in a range of ephemera, including the Constitution and by-laws and roster of members of the Isaac R. Trimble Camp of UCV, 1900; a calling card of UCV Lt. Gen. J. Thompson Brown; Hopkins’ printed appointment as aide de camp (Lt. Col.) to his UCV post and two “general orders,” two copies of a promotional flier for the Photographic History of the Civil War; a promo for James Madison Page’s True Story of Andersonville Prison: A Defense of Major Henry Wirz; and an exceptional reunion ribbon The blue and the gray… Manassas, Virginia, July 21, 1911, with an image of Union and Confederate soldiers shaking hands in front of tents and beneath a symbolic dove. Also a printed pamphlet General Alexander Hays at the Battle of Gettysburg (1913); a fine printing out photo showing early automobile motoring past the monument to Stuart at Yellow Tavern (ca 1910?); and an interesting key and explanation to a panorama of the Battle of Gettysburg sold as a color gravure (1910), a printing out paper photo of Stonewall Jackson’s horse Little Sorrel; five photos of Fairfield, Pa. (near Gettysburg), and maps for an unidentified publication of the positions of both armies at Gettysburg on the last day and Jackson’s Valley Campaign of 1862.
A large and significant array of manuscripts, letters, documents, and photographs reflecting the experience of an historically-inclined Confederate veteran, including some fine historical writing, several first-person accounts of Civil War exploits written by both Union and Confederate soldiers, and letters providing insight into the of the course of the Lost Cause after the turn of the twentieth century. (EST $5000-$7000)
Condition: Generally good condition, with some expected wear and tear.
Lot # 1385
CIVIL WAR ARCHIVE OF COLONEL JAMES M. CONINE, 5TH USCT,
comprising a heavily colorized copy image measuring 8” by 9.5” mounted on board of Conine as a 1st lieutenant in the 1st Kentucky Battery, a copy of the same cdv photograph before colorization, an 1890s cabinet card of an aging Conine wearing 9th, 10th and 18th Corps badges and GAR Post Commander’s star, a wonderful 17” by 12” post-war cotton souvenir/reunion flag with 37 stars bearing eight battle honors of the 5th USCT stenciled in gold on the red stripes, with a file of documentation that includes Colonel Conine’s National Archive records, 5th USCT regimental information, newspaper articles related to Delaware, Ohio where the 127th OVI (5th USCT) was raised, and a book entitled Eagles on Their Buttons, a 1999 regimental history of the 5th USCT with references to the colonel.
Born and raised in Middleport, Ohio, James M. Conine was living in Lexington, Kentucky when the Civil War commenced. He served briefly in the 1st Kentucky Infantry before enlisting as a 1st lieutenant in the 1st Kentucky Battery in June 1861 seeing service at Perryville, Stones’ River, and Chickamauga. Conine was then commissioned colonel of the 127th OVI, the first black regiment organized in Ohio in late 1863-early 1864 and led the intrepid regiment redesignated the 5th USCT until he was severely wounded at Petersburg on June 15, 1864 where the Buckeye’s earned the battle honor for “their gallantry in capturing the line of works and the enemy’s guns at that place.” Colonel Conine was discharged for disability in September 1864.
The accumulated battle honors on the flag bespeak the terrible sacrifice made by the men of the 5th USCT at a time when heavy casualties were calculated as the acceptable price for Grant’s style of exhausting attritional warfare. By the end of hostilities the soldiers of the 5th USCT had proven their worth having won four Congressional Medal of Honors, paying the price of freedom with 266 total casualties, 81 of them killed or mortally wounded. (EST $800-$1000)
Condition: Conine’s colorized image and GAR cabinet card VG/G. The 5th USCT flag shows vibrant colors with 5 different vertical age separations up to 2.5” long. The stenciled gold battle honors are unaffected except “Fair Oaks.” Flag would benefit from conservation.
Lot # 1389
OFFICIAL BATTLE REPORT OF 36TH MISSISSIPPI ENGAGED AT FARMINGTON,
Mississippi, May 9, 1862 endorsed by General Daniel Ruggles. 2pg. manuscript inked battle report addressed to Capt. Barr, 17th Brigade, 4th (Ruggles) Division, Confederate Army from Colonel D. J. Brown, commanding 36th Mississippi, docketed in ink with pencil signature of “General Ruggles,” folded into quarters.
A concise but riveting account of a little known action fought in northeastern Mississippi between lead elements of Halleck’s plodding army advancing on the railhead at Corinth and Confederate defenders comprising a marching column of Ruggles division, Army of the Mississippi. The Confederate attack developed along the Old Hamburg and Corinth dirt road on the morning of May 9 striking a portion of Major General Pope’s extended left wing. The battle was short and violent with Pope calling for reinforcements, reporting that the enemy was “advancing fiercely on his camp.” Indeed, Ruggles men attacked and drove the Federals before them.
Satisfied with the success of their initial demonstration the Confederates made no further effort to advance. Colonel Brown of the 36th Mississippi reported, “…my regiment formed in line of battle entered the second old field” where upon “the enemy in the woods in front commenced a fire and here, two of my men fell, the enemy however gave way through the adjoining woods and we advanced rapidly pursuing them and on reaching an old field in which was a old Gin, the enemy made a bold and firm stand. We formed in line of battle near the fence and here for sometime we exchanged a heavy & murderous fire, two of my men fell, one killed instantly, the other mortally wounded together with ten others. Whilst the fire was the hottest someone unknown to me gave the order to fall back.”
The order was quickly countermanded and the men made to “stop the retreat.” Upon reforming in line of battle “the enemy made a precipitated retreat to the woods in front of us, we continued to follow the direction of their retreat, but never again came up with them…” Brown dutifully appended the name and rank of 14 killed and wounded from the 36th Mississippi and “respectfully submitted” his report, a deadly real footnote in the history of western operations. (EST $1000-$1500)
Condition: Battle report is near EXC. except for tear in upper left corner. Folded into quarters.
Lot # 1390
FINE MANUSCRIPT REPORT ON THE BATTLE OF CHANCELLORSVILLE AND GETTYSBURG,
19pp, 7.75 x 10", HQ 2nd Mass. Infy., Elk River R.R. Bridge, Tenn. Dec. 11th, '63. This is the draft copy of the annual report of Adj. John Fox to the Adj. Gen. of Massachusetts, retained by Fox after the final report was submitted. The report was published in Massachusetts after being somewhat "sanitized." A few pages into the report and much of Fox's sarcasm and caustic humor also becomes evident (was it lost on his superiors?). In his report is the unit's encounter at Chancellorsville, and he extensively describes the 2nd MVI's involvement at Gettysburg, which comprises about a third of the report.
Fox begins Dec. 12, 1862, with the unit leaving comfortable Winter quarters behind, started on their march towards Fredericksbug, VA. They marched about 73 miles, reaching what they thought was their destination a week later, but were then ordered to go back to Fairfax Station.
At Fairfax Station, with the exception of about 16 miles of traveling through the mud after the Rebel cavalry under Stewart, whom, it is needless to say we failed to overhaul, the regiment remained until Jan. 19th, 1863. At that date we again took the Dumfries road towards Stafford C.H. The movement was particularly trying to our patience as the men had occupied for a few days only an elaborate set of Winter Quarters built with much labor and pains of pine logs and arranged exactly according to Army regulations.
He continues with the usual mud, rain, and scarce rations complaints. A part of this road, called in old times the Sabonian Bog, is the worst known to the experience of the reg't. Stafford C.H. was reached Jan. 23d; winter quarters were built for the third time [emphasis ours], and the usual routine of picket, guard, and fatigue duty was commenced.... The unit broke camp at the end of April and started on the Chancellorsville Campaign.
He continues: On May 2nd, the Corps built a slight defense of logs and abbatis. In the afternoon, the division was ordered out towards the front to capture a wagon train, the enemy being reported in full retreat. The wagon train, proving to be guarded by the better part of the Rebel Army under under Stonewall Jackson, our whole force was ordered to retire to its first line,... But the 11th Corps, with the exception of the Brigade in which is the 33rd Mass., having hastily left their position on our right - under the influence of an aversion for Stonewall Jackson, it was found difficult to occupy the position ordered, and night closing in, the whole force lay in line of battle waiting for light. [underlined portion omitted from published version]
After more complaints about bad communication and confusing reconnaissance, Fox describes the first real volleys of the battle. After a contest of an hour and a half, this regiment cleared the space in its front and found itself in possession of its old entrenchments. But it had fired 60 rounds of cartridges and had none left and the guns were very foul so after breaking 3 lines it could only stand and look at the new dispositions of the Rebels and wait with what patience we could command for ammunition or relief. After finally being relieved, they headed for the rear under heavy fire. With ammunition restocked, they headed out into the fray again, through burning underbrush in a wooded area, until they reached the bluffs near the river where they were finally able to rest.
Then came a day of crossing and recrossing the river, having orders countermanded, and another night spent wet and cold in the trenches. They again were delayed at the river, and finally crossed and marched 23 miles back to where they started at Stafford C.H. They were engaged sporadically until mid-June, when they headed toward Frederick, arriving on the 28th.
The regiment started northward through Taney town and arrived at the village of "Two Taverns" on the 1st of July and went into bivouac. heavy and continuous firing in the direction of Gettysburg soon startled the Corps which at once were ordered forward and took position about 2 miles south of the town on the right. Skirmishers were thrown out. Toward night the disposition of the regiment was somewhat changed. On the morning of the 2nd after some skirmishing, another change was made, and breastworks of logs were thrown up on the bank of a deep stream in the woods.
In the afternoon heavy firing commenced on the left and the regiment were ordered to leave the woods and go to a position left of that wing.... Scarcely was the movement completed when the enemy being repulsed and it being dark, we were ordered back to our log defenses again.
After a night of sporadic firing and several reconnaissance missions being sent out, fighting again began in earnest. The fire of the sharpshootes posted in trees on the other side of the meadow was very close and annoying. Orders were given the 2d regiment and one other to advance across the open meadow and take the position of the enemy. It seemed certain destruction but such were orders. Major Mudge gave the command "Rise up, over the breastworks; Forward, double quick!" With a cheer and a yell, with bayonets unfixed, without firing a shot, the line advanced as rapidly as the swampy ground would allow. Major Mudge fell dead in the centre. He goes on to describe the color-bearers being shot, then the retreat back to the breastworks. In that advance of about 400 yds. and in about 20 minutes time the Second had lost out of 293 men and officers, 22 killed and 112 wounded.
By the next morning, the enemy had disappeared. The Fourth of July was employed in burying the dead and caring for the wounded, and on the 5th, it started in pursuit of the enemy by the route of advance. On the 10th of July, it crossed the old Antietam battle ground, every step reminded us of that stubborn fight.
The 2nd wandered around the region of the Potomac a few more weeks, until it was deployed to New York City to aid in suppression of the draft riots, about which Fox also had comments. [The unit was] quartered in the City Hall Park barracks to help enforce the laws against Northern rebels. Northern rebels being less formidable than Southern ones as far as courage is concerned, the work was not very dangerous.
The unit was then suddenly ordered west, arriving in early October in Stevenson, AL. After traveling up and down the R.R. from Stevenson to Charleston and from Charleston to Stevenson on foot and by rail, the regiment finally settled, if any military position can be termed final, at Elk River R.R, Bridge, TN, where it remains at this date, defending a post of great importance to the communications of the Army.
A classic litany of complaints, and excellent first-hand accounts of the involvement of one unit in some of the historic battles of the war, and a rare first draft of this report with all editing. (EST $3000-$4000)
Condition: Minor soiling on outer leaf where it was folded in Fox's field desk for nearly a century, else EXC.
Lot # 1391
ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPT REPORT ON THE LOSSES OF THE 2ND MASSACHUSETTS AT GETTYSBURG,
4 leaves, 8 written pages, 8 x 10" and tied together at top (with what was originally "red tape"). Found in the field desk of John Fox, Adj. 2nd MAVI, this is the original report submitted by Fox listing those killed, missing, and wounded at Gettysburg, which eventually became part of the Official Report. However, Fox lists more detail than was included in the OR, particularly information about wounds ("arm," "ankle," etc.). Among those wounded are Thomas B. Fox, Jr., also of Dorcester, MA and possibly related, wounded in the ankle and died before the end of July. See Lot 1390 for Fox's description of the 2nd MA involvement at Gettysburg.
At the height of the fighting at Culp's Hill on 3 July 1863, two Union regiments, the 2nd MA and the 27th IN, were ordered to send skirmishers toward the knoll where CSA General Steuart's men were locked in. By the time the order was delivered to the commanders, it called for a full-scale attack.
Incredulous, Lt. Col. Mudge, commanding officer of the 2nd MA, supposedly told his officers, "Boys, it is murder. But these are our orders!" And so it was. The units charged into the meadow south of Spangler's Spring, and were mowed down by musket fire from 3 directions. The 2nd lost 10 officers and 125 enlisted men, including its commander, Col. Mudge, shot dead during the charge. (EST $1500-$2500)
Condition: Toning on 1/3 of last sheet where folded, else EXC.
Lot # 1392
SCARCE AUTOGRAPHED CONFEDERATE ACCOUNT OF THE BATTLE OF BULL RUN,
Barnard, J.G. The C.S.A. and the Battle of Bull Run. New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1862. 8vo, red cloth with gilt front, 124pp, 5 fold-out maps and 12pp publisher's ads at rear. With inscription to Hon. Solomon Foot and signed by Barnard on second ffep. Bookplate indicates that the Hon. Mr. Foot then donated it to the Bar Library of the U.S. District Court in Vermont.
John Gross Barnard (1815-1882) was born in MA, and attended West Point, graduating second in his class in 1833. The Army sent him south, where he was engaged in various engineering projects until the outbreak of the Mexican War. His service there earned him a Major's brevet. From 1850 he surveyed the Isthmus of Tehuantepec with an eye toward canal-building there, becoming Major of engineers in 1858. In the Civil War, he was McDowell's head engineer at the first Battle of Bull Run, and later in the Peninsular campaign, but by then with the rank of Brigadier General. In his preface, Barnard notes that his aim was to view the battle from the southern viewpoint, which he had come to understand in the course of his assignments with the Army, and with a soldier's eye - as a well-planned and -executed battle on the part of the CSA strategists. And thus, the Confederate viewpoint, as illustrated by a military engineer. (EST $200-$300)
Condition: Professional repair to front hinge. Sunning of spine and split beginning on front of spine, shelfwear. Leaves only barely toned with minor scattered foxing. VG+.
Lot # 1393
POST-WAR ALS FROM GENERAL QUINCY GILLMORE TO GENERAL HORATIO G. WRIGHT,
dated Washington, D.C., August 29, 1879 with non-related Gilmore cdv by Anthony–Brady. Lt. Colonel Gillmore writes to the Army Chief Engineer Wright asking for a department’s formal position on a routine matter relating to “the reimbursement of civilians in the employ of or holding positions under the United States for their expenses while absent from their homes on public service.” Letter is written completely in long hand by Gillmore over a page and half in brown ink with signature on back beneath salutation. Gillmore returned to the Engineer Corps following the war and was promoted to colonel in 1883. He did much to advance civil engineering serving on various boards and commissions that dealt with public infrastructure while authoring a number of books and profession papers on the various engineering-related topics. (EST $200-$300)
Condition: ALS with horizontal fold lines, else VG. Carte VG.
Lot # 1394
JEFFERSON DAVIS ALS TO PRESIDENT POLK,
1p manuscript in ink, dated Brierfield, Mississippi, October 5, 1847, recommending that former Major Cary S. Fry, 2nd Kentucky Volunteers be appointed paymaster, USA. Davis offers an endorsement of Fry based on their shared Military Academy (Davis graduated in 1828) credentials and the officer’s recent campaign experience in Mexico where Davis had commanded the 1st Mississippi Rifles.
This otherwise mundane letter was written by former soldier and aristocratic planter Davis during a particularly volatile period in his personal life. Davis had been wounded at Buena Vista and upon mustering out in July had returned to his Mississippi plantation to recover when he was appointed to fill the senate seat left vacant by the death of Jesse Speight on May 1, 1847.
The late summer and fall at Brierfield, then under construction, had been unpleasant as Davis suffered a reoccurrence of malaria on the heels of vexing family matters. Determined to chart his political future the obdurate Davis feuded with wife Varina as he attempted to mend fences with his former mentor and fellow Democrat Polk. Davis had earlier rejected Polk’s tender of a volunteer brigadier general’s commission for convoluted “reasons of principle” suspecting that the President’s offer had been an inducement to keep Davis from taking Speight’s vacant seat.
At best, it might be inferred from this letter that Davis was testing the waters with Polk, seeking the President’s endorsement on a relatively unimportant matter as a way of opening the lines of communication and weighing their fractured relationship. Senator Davis left for Washington on November 11, 1847 and Varina stayed behind. Major Fry was ultimately appointed paymaster but not until 1853 by Franklin Pierce. Polk did not stand for reelection and Davis would resign his senate seat in 1851 to run for governor of Mississippi, loosing to Henry S. Foote, another former friend turned political rival. (EST $1000-$1500)
Condition: ALS with fold lines and slight brown toning at right margin, near EXC.
Lot # 1395
WARTIME ALS FROM CONFEDERATE GENERAL DANIEL RUGGLES,
a hurriedly penciled order on half sheet, undated but probably May 1862 reading, “Generals, I have ordered 100 mules teams complete from Memphis. 30 have come. Please order the rest. (signed) Daniel Ruggles.” The letter probably originated from Corinth where the Confederate Army had commenced building major fortifications after Shiloh. Ruggles duties following the battle were largely administrative. (EST $400-$600)
Condition: ALS with minor foxing, else VG.
Lot # 1396
MISSISSIPPI GOVERNOR ORDERS MUSKETS DELIVERED TO CONFEDERATE TROOPS,
1p. ink ALS by Governor John J. Pettus on Executive Mansion stationary, dated Jackson, Mississippi, November 7, 1861. Gov. Pettus orders Col. M.H. Brown, Adjutant general Army of Mississippi to issue “all small arms suitable for infantry such as muskets, rifles, shotguns, now in the arsenal…to Lt. Col. Layton.” Governor Pettus was often frustrated in his attempts to outfit his Mississippi troops by a 5-member board that controlled the states military spending. This executive order dated early in the war is an example of Pettus’ willingness to circumvent the rules in order to supply his troops. After giving up the governorship in 1864, the fire-eating Pettus led by example and enrolled as a private in the 1st Mississippi. (EST $300-$500)
Condition: ALS with fold lines and irregular tear at left margin, else EXC.
Lot # 1397
JOSEPH WHEELER ALS TO MRS. GENERAL ROMEYN B. AYERS,
3pgs. manuscript in ink with cover, dated Cleveland, Ohio, June 15, 1903. An informal, personal letter penned by “Fighting Joe” Wheeler who responds to an earlier invitation by the widowed Mrs. Ayers to meet. Wheeler cordially advises Mrs. Ayers of his “whereabouts this summer” and promises to “write you & try to call upon you.” Signed “Sincerely Your Friend/Joseph Wheeler” without military rank.
Wheeler’s reputation as one of the premier Confederate cavalry commanders had already been cemented by the time he was elected to the first of eight terms as congressman in 1881.
Major General Wheeler dutifully rejoined the army and fought in Cuba during the Spanish -American War, retiring as a regular brigadier in September 1900. Major General Romeyn B. Ayers had commanded a division in the Army of the Potomac during the late war and had remained in the regular army advancing to colonel in 1879. He died at Fort Hamilton, New York in December 1888. (EST $200-$300)
Condition: ALS near EXC with fold lines, envelope with slight wear.
Lot # 1398
TENNESSEE GOVERNOR'S ALS TO GENERAL GIDEON PILLOW,
1p. manuscript on ruled light blue paper with watermark of shield encircled with stars and “IMPROVED” over top, dated Executive Department, June 28, 1861, to Major Gen’l. Gideon P. Pillow, signed by Isham B. Harris, Governor of Tennessee. Harris directs Pillow to allow a William Meriweather to ship cargo of tobacco taken from the Steamer Louisville to Nashville by rail. In June 1861 Isham Harris was serving his third two-year term as governor and Pillow, a former law partner of James Polk, was the senior Major General of Tennessee State Troops. Docketed Governor Harris June 1861 on verso. (EST $200-$300)
Condition: ALS is EXC but laminated.
Lot # 1399
POST-WAR ALS BY CSA GENERAL STEPHEN D. LEE,
3pp manuscript in ink dated Columbus, Mississippi, March 15, 1880 to Lt. E. L. Juliuski (sic), unknown. A very difficult letter to decipher and read, but Lee apparently refers to his recent essay that “I think it not best to publish it at present as General Hood’s book has placed me in an awkward attitude…” Also mentions General Hardee’s writings in an unknown, but presumably disagreeable context.
The letter illuminates the often vitriolic post-war competition that took place between author-generals looking to secure favorable ground on the battlefield of posterity. Theirs was the generation that influenced the history of the late war then being committed to record and cognizant of the judgment of future generations, much maneuvering ensued to caste hard-won reputations in a favorable light. The more prominent the officer, the greater the stakes inviting controversy.
Stephen Dill Lee was one of just a handful of lieutenant generals in Confederate service and a mainstay of the Army of Tennessee, yet he is little remembered and often overlooked. Lee was captured at Vicksburg, paroled and later given command of the cavalry in the expansive Department of Mississippi and Alabama, West Tennessee and East Louisiana. He was promoted to lieutenant general at the height of the Atlanta campaign and given Hood’s old corps which he led until the final surrender of Joe Johnston’s army. Lee became an educator and prominent figure in the rise of the post-war United Confederate Veteran’s movement, a group that did much to advance and perpetuate the lore of the “Lost Cause” as a means of reconciling the late imponderable defeat. Lee was among the last of the senior Confederate generals to die in 1908. (EST $200-$300)
Condition: ALS near EXC with 1.5” tear along fold line at bottom. No cover.
Lot # 1400
TWO POST-WAR ALSS IN THE HAND OF FITZHUGH LEE WITH CABINET CARD,
“Fitz” was a confident of J.E.B. Stuart and favorite nephew of R.E. Lee who performed admirably with the much-depleted Cavalry Corps during the 1864 fighting, particularly at Spotsylvania. By war’s end Fitzhugh had risen to the command of the Army of Northern Virginia’s once vaunted Cavalry Corps.
Fitzhugh was elected Governor of Virginia in 1885 and one typed ALS is on the official letterhead of the Commonwealth of Virginia Governor’s Office dated April 20, 1886. The Governor sends his regrets to early Gettysburg historian “Gen. John B. Batchelder” for being unable to commit to attending an upcoming battlefield event due to “my official duties here.” He adds, “Having written one or two articles on the battle of Gettysburg, I have always intended to visit the field & renew my acquaintance with it.” Fitzhugh signed the letter beneath a typed salutation in his typically bold hand on paper with 1884 dated watermark.
The second ALS is dated Richmond, Va., June 19, 1903 informing an admirer that he is “not able to send you the autograph (of General Lee) you requested." Fitzhugh advises the woman to contact either Lee’s daughter or the Rev. J. William Jones directly. Signed in blue ink beneath a typed salutation. The cabinet card by C.M. Bee, Washington, D.C. shows a stocky Fitzhugh in the uniform of a major general of US volunteers during the Spanish-American War. (EST $300-$500)
Condition: 1886 ALS with splits developing along center fold line, very lightly typed, G. 1903 ALS with fold lines and ink spot at right margin. Cabinet Card near EXC with slight wear along edges.
Lot # 1401
TEXAS SUPREME COURT DOCUMENT SIGNED BY THOMAS GREEN,
future Confederate General killed in action. Gray paper, 1p. partially pre-printed writ headed “The State of Texas” with legal text inserted in ink, dated April 29, 1853, with embossed state seal, docketed on verso, “433 Stephens v. Hudson, et al.” Lower right corner bears the signature of “Thomas Green, Clerk.”
Texan Thomas Green fought in the War for Independence and with Zachary Taylor as captain in the 1st Texas Rifles during the Mexican War. For twenty years Green held the position of clerk of the Texas Supreme Court before resigning in 1861. He joined Confederate service as colonel of the 5th Texas Cavalry and was promoted to brigadier general in May 1863 following distinguished service at Galveston. Green was killed in action at Blair’s Landing, Louisiana on April 12, 1864 during the Red River campaign. An obscure Confederate general. (EST $200-$300)
Condition: Document folded into quarters, else near EXC.
Lot # 1402
FINE POST WAR ALS BY "FIGHTING JOE" WHEELER,
5pp. ink manuscript on letterhead of Hotel Sanz, Mexico City, dated November 29, 1904. Writing to his daughters Wheeler reports, “My Darlings, Here I am in the city of the Montezuma, a city of bull fights and historic interest…saw the house in which Maximilian lived…” He proceeds with detailed description of the sights of old Mexico, ending the letter, “With all my love, devotedly your father, Joseph Wheeler.” (EST $200-$300)
Condition: ALS folded into thirds, else EXC. No cover.
Lot # 1403
CONFEDERATE MILITARY RECEIPT FOR SLAVE,
pre-printed on irregularly cut brown lined paper measuring approximately 5.5” by 4”, dated Richmond May 12, 1862. The small receipt confirms the extensive use of slave labor “for work on fortifications at and near this city” in advance of the major Seven Days’ battles that soon swirled on the outskirts of Richmond. The slave-owner’s name is Thomas Creasy and his slave is Wiley procured by order of Lt. Col. W.H. Stevens and signed for by Chief Engineer J. Lamb.
Walter H. Stevens was a regular Confederate Engineer officer in charge of the Richmond defenses who reported directly to army commander General Johnston as chief engineer that summer. He later was promoted to brigadier general in August 1864 and is said to have been the last man to cross the Mayo Bridge the night Richmond was evacuated. He left the country after the war to built railroads in Mexico for Maximilian and never returned, dying in Vera Cruz in 1867. (EST $300-$400)
Condition: Receipt with horizontal fold in center, else EXC.
Lot # 1404
THREE CIVIL WAR MANUSCRIPTS, ONE FROM WINFIELD SCOTT,
includes a small, 2.5 x.4.5” envelope with Maj. General Winfield Scott’s free franking, addressed to Capt. George H. Pegram in Richmond, VA, with Washington, DC postal stamp (Aug. 25). Correspondence is missing, but consignor indicates that addressee is brother of John Pegram (USMA 1854). John Pegram served in the West after graduation, as did most Cadets, and resigned in May 1861 to serve the Confederacy, as did many other southerners. Col. Pegram [later to be Major General] was captured with his men in the region of Beverly, WV / Rich Mt. in the summer of 1861. At that time exchanges were still being made, and Pegram was quickly returned to the Confederacy.
DS, 1p, 7.5 x. 9.5”, Special Order No. 161 of General W.T. Sherman, Headquarters of the 15th Army near Black River, 13 Aug. 1863, ordering Pvt. George Andrews of Co. G, 48th IL to proceed to Vicksburg and report to Major Bowers at the Department of the Tennessee Headquarters.
4pp (2 sheets) from account ledger, 10 x 15”. On one page, account of William Schick, 47th PA Vols. and on verso account of William Schlicher, Co. K, 47th PA Vols., for Oct.1863 through 1864. Second page has account of William Berkens, March 1864 – June 1865, no unit noted, and on verso, John Boston, dead, no unit noted, only entry for March 30, 1864. Uncertain which John Boston this is, as both in Civil War database listed as KIA. One enlisted in May of 1864 (from PA), and other enlisted in August 1864. There are others by this name DOD. (EST $200-$300)
Condition: Envelope with expected soil; Special Orders separated into 3 pieces, but readable; ledger sheets fine.
Lot # 1405
THREE CIVIL WAR LETTERS,
including: a 2pp, 6 x 9" list dated 31 Aug. 1864 as follows: We the undersigned agree to pay the sums set opposite our names for the purpose of raising one hundred dollars more for each volunteer to fill the quota for Clinton Township. Each pledge is marked as paid or crossed out. (There is no state indicated, but searches on three of the less common names - Rosengrant, Frear, and Brayton Cobb - returned records from Pennsylvania [Wyoming Co.].); PLUS a 3pp, 5 x 8” letter to Dr. H. Fenwick McSherry, surgeon on the U.S.S. Wabash, dated 17 Feb. 1863, from his sister Eliza. Written in a close, tiny hand, the letter concerns primarily family matters, but she does note that she looked for the Wabash among the ships at Charleston, becoming concerned when the ship was not there, especially since she was one of the squadron flagships. AND a 1p, approx. 5 x 8” letter from H.M. Fowler, Capt. 15th NJVI regarding the fact that John Evans of Co. A of the same unit had been dropped from the rolls as missing in action at Spotsylvania Court House, 12 May 1864. Fowler further notes that Evans was not taken prisoner, since he himself had been a prisoner for a short time and Evans was not there. Adhered to verso is a piece about 4 x 7” noting that Tillara Heckman had applied for widow’s benefits, since her husband, Joseph Heckman, Pvt. Co. G, 142nd PAVI, died of “dropsy” while at home on furlough.
The naval history of the Civil War has not received as much attention as the bloodier battles of the land, but major cities grow up around ports, and control of the port often means control of the city. The Wabash was commissioned in 1856. She saw service in Central American, then after a brief hiatus was re-commissioned and sent to the Mediterranean (with a young George Dewey aboard as midshipman). She was decommissioned again in 1859, and re-commissioned in 1861 with the outbreak of war. She spent most of the war as part of the Atlantic Blockading Squadron. In early action she captured at least 5 Confederate vessels before taking part in the amphibious assault on Hatteras Inlet, NC in August 1861. The attack force captured Forts Hatteras and Clark, took over 700 prisoners and suffered no casualties. After a brief refit, she spearheaded the battle for Port Royal Sound in November as flagship for F.O. Samuel Du Pont. She then took up a permanent station in the blockade of Charleston, operating out of Port Royal. She was eventually decommissioned in Feb. 1865. It would seem as though the ship saw plenty of action, her surgeon, not so much. (EST $200-$300)
Condition: Letter EXC except for light pencil, which may be as written.
Lot # 1406
GROUP OF 7 CONFEDERATE AND UNION LETTERS,
A small collection of letters, all but one of Civil War date, including four Confederate and two Union letters. Two of the Confederate letters provide a vivid impression of the difficulties experienced by the families of soldiers in the absence of their sons, husbands, and fathers. On the official side of things, the justices of the court in Blakely, Ga., refuse to provide assistance to the wife of a soldier who had recently moved into their county, complaining: Our county is at present doing more towards the support of soldiers families than we conceive to be our share -- yet rather than they should suffer we bear it. We contribute to the support of the families of all soldiers who were citizens of the county at the date of their enlistment; also to the families of all soldiers who went in companies from this county…You will see at once that if we permit families who may more into this county to draw from us, the result would be that our citizens would be burdened by taxation for their support… (letter, Dec. 16, 1862, with document requesting support for the woman, and envelope). On the personal side, M. E. Cross of Charleston writes regarding hire of her “girl,” Susan, with an envelope containing a hand-canceled 10-cent Jeff. Davis stamp in very good condition (Nov. 10, 1862).
The other Confederate letters appear to have been written by soldiers. In the first, John Kiracofe, who appears to have been a soldier posted in Staunton, Va., writes home to state that he had seen Gen. Imboden and his Colonel (Baldwin) about getting to Richmond and back to the Shenandoah Valley (Aug. 25, 1863). The letter is enclosed in a waterstained envelope with closely cropped five cent blue Jeff. Davis stamp.
More interesting and important, however, is a remarkable letter from Lt. T. J. Salter of Co., D, 16th Alabama Infantry, to his cousin Mollie Tompkins (4p.), giving a grim view of the state of the Confederate forces encamped near Tupelo, Miss., during the early summer 1862, along with an account of the Battles of Shiloh and Corinth. At present (June 20, 1862), he wrote, our water is very bad indeed. I expect it will cause a great deal of sickness in our army or at least it seems so presently. Every depot on the rail Road I hear is filled with sickly soldiers. I surpose you have heard of the evacuation of Corinth Miss. We left there on the 29th of May 1862. Don’t believe the Yankees made us leave there. Our cause for evacuating the place we could not stay there on account of water. There was not enough water to supply the army and we have not had sufficient water since last winter… We have very hard times now. Very long marches to perform very often… we have dug nearly 1000 wells for this army and that seems not sufficient yet…. Mentions having seen a mutual friend last at the Battle of Shiloh, when they were guarding prisoners: Our regiment suffered greatly on Sunday and Monday at Shiloh. Our company started in the Battle with 28 men and in less time than an hour we charged a battery and then after we had taken the Battery and drive the enemy from the field I was ordered to call the roll of the company and found only 13 men in the company present. So there was 15 out of our company killed and wounded, over half the men we started with. And on Monday I carried 5 men in the Battle, the Capt. being [ill?] and could not do anything on Mandy and consequently I had to take command of the company. We fought hard all day and in the evening both armies withdrew from the Battlefield, I came out with 4 men and about 75 men in the Regiment and then traveled towards out camps until 10 o’clock p.m. sleeping in the rain all night and we had not had nothing to eat in 4 days and nights.
The two union letters were probably written by soldiers, although their affiliations are unrecorded. The otherwise unidentified J. M. Gregory, writes from Memphis regarding arrangements to express money to the recipient’s mother (2p., March 8, 1862), while in a wry letter home to Maine, a soldier (?) contemplates his own mortality. [W]e find ourselves at work here for the good of human bodies, which you know, are of vast importance in a world like this where we are obliged to get our living trying the sweat of our brow. In this respect there will be some advantage in going to the other world if we only get to heaven but if we get to the other place we shall have to scorch for it though we are not informed whether we shall sweat or not. If we get there (that is) in the hot place, there is one kind of business which I think will pay well, and that is the manufacture of Lucifer matches, and peddle them out in heaven. You can think of this plan and make up your mind how it will pay… (Dec. 1861)
Finally, the collection includes a letter written years before the Civil War (June 17, 1827): a long (4p.), intimate, cross-hatched letter between women in New Bedford, Mass., concerning singing in church, temperance, and social matters.
A fine collection with a superb Alabama Confederate account of two of the critical battles in the western theatre. (EST $500-$700)
Condition: Generally good condition, with limited wear, age toning, and staining.
Lot # 1407
FINE TEXAS CONFEDERATE SOLDER'S WARTIME DISCHARGE & LEGAL PAPERS,
comprising the 1864 discharge papers of Private Charles Radke, Company B., 7th Texas Cavalry, Radke’s signed and notarized “declaration of intention” to become a US citizen sworn before an officer of the 4th Judicial District, Comal County, Texas, dated May 2, 1859, and Radke’s official Citizenship Papers dated June 25, 1866, County Court of Guadeloupe, signed Carl Radke, and countered by witnesses.
Charles Radke had immigrated to Texas in 1853 from Prussia and appeared ready to become a US citizen when the Civil War intervened. Instead, Radke joined the 7th Texas Cavalry on September 1, 1862 and served about a year and a half before being discharged by "reason of disability" at Mansfield, Louisiana on April 6, 1864. Following the war Radke became a naturalized citizen in 1866 and kept his “personal papers” together in an envelope marked “COUNTY CLERK, New Braunfels, Texas”. The fine discharge is pre-printed on gray paper under the banner of the “Confederate States of America/Soldier’s Discharge” and completed in ink by “P.T. Herbert, Lt. Col. Comd’g 7th Texas.”
The 7th Texas Cavalry served exclusively in the Trans-Mississippi fighting several engagements in Louisiana before surrendering on June 2, 1865. The lure of Texas land had attracted a large German immigrant population before the war concentrated in a number of thriving ethnic communities so it is not surprising to find a German serving in Confederate Army. (EST $300-$400)
Condition: Discharge VG with fold lines. Other two documents complete but separating along fold lines, else VG.
Lot # 1408
RARE COPY OF R.E. LEE'S CLARION GO NO. 9,
small 1p., datelined in text “Headquarters Army of Northern Virginia, April 10, 1865,” printed on recycled military commissary form with Lynchburg, Va. in the heading.
So far as we have been able to determine, this specimen is an unrecorded, hitherto unknown variant, and a possible expedient field printing. The text is hand-set letterpress, accomplished with typical 19th century typefaces, on the verso of a partial Confederate commissary’s receipt which bears the printed dateline “Lynchburg,” not far from Appomattox. There is a hurried quality, as there is a misspelled word, with a line of type that goes off horizontal. The receipt form and the dateline are the only immediate clues to the point of origin of this famous order, which may have been distributed for the information of officers and troops at Appomattox. The distinctly crude quality of the print suggests it could have been done on a field press, or, alternatively, hastily done local newspaper job work. The text has slight grammar and punctuation differences from that published in The Wartime Papers of R.E. Lee, plus a few differences in wording (which, however, can also be found in the various manuscript copies Lee signed).
A very unusual example of the immortal order in which General Lee bade his troops “an affectionate farewell.” (EST $3000-$4000)
Condition: Circular with horizontal fold and slight, smothered wrinkling at top with short, repairable tear upper left in fold line and another longer tear at right through dateline, overall VG.
Lot # 1410
CONFEDERATE MILITARY CIRCULAR ORDERING SOLDIERS TO REJOIN THEIR REGIMENTS AFTER SHILOH,
pre-printed half sheet circular on green “necessity paper” from Headquarters Special Dept. of Guards and Depots, General Orders No. 2, dated Corinth, Mississippi, May 20, 1862 by order of Brig. Gen. Ruggles, Comd’g Dep’t., in four Roman numeral points. Ruggles orders the immediate concentration of all CS troops capable of bearing arms and authorizes the Provost Marshall “to enforce the execution of these orders” by combing the hospitals and private quarters of “invalids" and presumably a fair number of shirkers. Circular is signed by Capt. & AAG Roy M. Hooe who later served under General Chalmers. Docked on verso, “Hd Qtrs. Memphis May 27, 1862/ Capt. Edmundson will carry out the enclosed orders strictly. Orders will be published in regard to the same. / (signed) Thomas Rosser, Col. Commanding Post.” (EST $300-$500)
Condition: Circular with vertical fold line, else near EXC. Rare.
Lot # 1411
SCARCE CONFEDERATE GENERAL ORDERS FROM JAMES R. CHALMERS,
pre-printed on folded full sheet measuring 5” by 8”, being General Order No. 1., Headquarters 5th Military District, Panola, Mississippi, dated March 10, 1863, likely printed on field press. Chalmers has assumed command of the Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana and requests subordinate commanders to immediately forward returns specifying strength, armament and ammunition stocks. The general reminds his subordinates that discipline and good military order will prevail and to be vigilant “to prevent surprise and disgrace.” Lastly, Chalmers reminds his officers that “illicit trade” with the enemy is strictly forbidden and citizens and soldiers alike will be held accountable. Chalmers is better known as a division commander who rode under Nathan Bedford Forest. Docketed on verso “General Orders of Brig. Gen. Chalmers” in ink. Per Parish & Willingham: rare. (EST $250-$350)
Condition: Top margin discolored and frayed with chips and tears. Vertical fold line down center with minor rippling in bottom third. G+.
Lot # 1412
CONFEDERATE GO NO.3 APPOINTING ROBERT E. LEE
dated Richmond, February 6, 1865 by order of Samuel Cooper, Adjutant and Inspector General. A pre-printed circular half sheet bearing the post-war purple oval stamp of the “Record Division/Rebel Archives/War Dept.”
Throughout the war President Davis had presumed to act as de-facto commander in chief overseeing and coordinating the strategic alignment of military operations involving Confederate forces in the far-flung theaters of operation. The ineffective Confederate model of government had the central authority in Richmond generally subordinate to the power of the various states and while the balance of power gradually evolved, Davis was never free to make fundamental strategic decisions above the interference and meddling of state governor’s and the agenda of Confederate Congress.
Desperate by 1865 and looking to pull a rabbit out of a hat, Lee’s reluctant elevation to General in Chief came too little, too late to affect the outcome of the war. Some have argued that had Lee been given the mantel of strategic command earlier in 1863—even after Gettysburg—and Confederate priorities shifted west, the war might well have been fought to a different conclusion. The "what ifs’" are both insurmountable and problematic, but it remains that Davis and the Confederacy had at last finally acknowledged the fundamental problem of unified command and put Lee in charge with this order. The circular ties Lee symbolically to both a cause already lost and aspirations never realized. (EST $200-$400)
Condition: Circular with slight brown toning at very margin with two ancient burn spots from a candle, else VG.
Lot # 1413
CONFEDERATE GO NO. 126 ANNOUNCING THE FINDINGS OF A GENERAL COURT MARTIAL,
7pp. printed and bound with string, no covers, from Hd. Qtrs. Army of Northern Virginia dated November 12, 1862 by command of General. R.E. Lee.
The results of a routine general court martial board convened following the Maryland campaign on September 25, 1862 are duly reported according to army regulations. Wherein, a total of 6 officers and 13 enlisted men from different regiments were tried for various offences ranging from stealing to desertion and cowardice with sentences as determined by the court published and endorsed by the commanding general. One unfortunate 25th North Carolina officer was cashiered for “taking fruit without the consent of the owner.” Most of the privates were sentenced to close confinement, the ball and chain with periods of hard labor. Another junior officer of the “Palmetto Sharpshooters” did upon three occasions straggle and “absent himself from his company on the eve of battle” for which he was found guilty and summarily cashiered. None of the offenses as yet warranted the draconian death penalty, a frequent remedy by 1864. (EST $150-$250)
Condition: Circular with minor foxing and one punch hole on lower third at left margin, VG.
Lot # 1414
CONFEDERATE ARMY CIRCULAR AUTHORIZING AWARDS AND BATTLE HONORS FOR FLAGS,
pre-printed half sheet from Headquarters, Army of the Mississippi, dated Corinth, Mississippi May 10, 1862 by order of G.T. Beauregard, General Commanding.
Bragg sets forth conditions for awarding battle honors to conspicuous regiments who will be allowed “to inscribe on their banners the name of the battle field on which they were engaged.” Regiments “misbehaving in action will be deprived of their colors until they have shown themselves worthy of defending them.” Bragg, as well, beseeches regimental commanders to understand that in lieu of orders, they “must rapidly advance in the direction the the heaviest firing.” Bragg then issues a clarion call to action mixed with a lesson in tactics invoking the motto: “Forward, and always forward” for “the more rapid the attack, the weaker...the resistance.” Endorsed in ink by “D.H. Poole, Acting Assistant Adjutant General” with a penciled notation below indicating that this copy probably belonged to “Brig. Genl. (Charles) Clark,” a little-known Mississippi officer who had been wounded at Shiloh and would be severely wounded at Baton Rouge later in August 1862 forcing him to retire from the army. (EST $250-$350)
Condition: Circular showing brown discoloration at top with minor damage to both upper corners, else VG.
Lot # 1427
JOHNSON’S NEW ILLUSTRATED FAMILY ATLAS, 1862,
full title is Johnson’s New Illustrated Family Atlas with Descriptions Geographical, Statistical and Historical, 1862, drawn and engraved by J.H. Colton & A.J. Johnson, N.Y. Johnson & Ward, large folio in half leather and faded embossed cloth boards with gilt cover with 97 maps and 99pp. (EST $1000-$1500)
Condition: Heavy wear to boards and toning of text, more so than maps, still VG.
Lot # 1428
MANUAL-INSTRUCTIONS FOR MAKING QUARTERLY RETURNS FOR ORDNANCE AND ORDNANCE ST
published by the Government Printing Office, Washington, 1864 under the auspices of the Ordnance Bureau, 6” by 9”, 90 pages with light blue paper boards and black spine. In army bureaucracy there is a regulation way to do everything and the title of this manual is self-explanatory. This manual was intended to school junior artillery officers in the proper method of filling out official army forms and reports with a six-page index running the gamut from Abstracts to Vouchers. This copy unmarked and unidentified to ownership. (EST $50-$100)
Condition: Paper manual uniformly tight with puckered covers, but no rips, tears, or missing pages, near VG. Evidence of a small burn hole on back cover in “Ordnance Dept.” logo.
Lot # 1429
SCARCE CIVIL WAR ERA SWORD EXERCISE MANUAL,
entitled Sword Exercise Illustrated by Capt. M.J. O'Rourke, self published N.Y. 1865, small 8vo in embossed black cloth boards with gilt patriotic designs on cover with single-folded 34" x 44" chart with 39 different swordsmanship stances illustrated, each with explanatory text. (EST $200-$400)
Condition: Minor toning, else VG.
Lot # 1436
ON THE ANTIETAM BATTLEFIELD, SIGNED BY AUTHOR,
Nicholson, Meredith. Indianapolis: Printed by Julian Wetzel, Keystone Press, 1924. Folio, beige paper boards. Limited edition, this being No. 77 of 77 copies printed. Inscribed to E.H. Kemper McComb and signed on ffep. Frontmatter indicates that the verses were written in the summer of 1910 and read September 17 that year at the dedication of the monument in memory of the Indiana volunteers who fell at the battle of Antietam. It was printed in the official report of the Indiana Antietam Monument Commission, and not elsewhere. (EST $100-$150)
Lot # 1438
MICHIGAN IN THE WAR,
Robertson, John. Lansing, MI: W.S. George & Co., 1880. 8vo, red leather with gilt lettering spine, 269pp. Tipped in slip of paper on ffep printed Compliments of David H. Jerome, Governor of Michigan. Frontis of Austin Blair, governor of the state when war was declared. As comprehensive a picture of Michigan's involvement in the conflict, beginning with Blair receiving word from Lincoln to contribute one fully armed and clothed infantry regiment to where each unit was raised and its members, to lists of those KIA, DOW, DOD, etc. (EST $150-$250)
Condition: Some darkening of spine and upper boards, wear to edges of boards, light toning of page edges. VG+.
Lot # 1439
FOUR CIVIL WAR BOOKS INCLUDING CONFEDERATE IMPRINT,
including: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. Washington: GPO, 1897, Series I, vol. L, Part I: Reports, Correspondence, etc. 4to, brown cloth boards with gilt lettering on spine, 1275pp PLUS Anon. Ballads of the South. Np, nd, 16mo, marbled boards with leather spine, with "Telegraphic Strategy" in back. PLUS Hanly, J. Frank. The Battle of Gettysburg. Cincinnati: Jennings and Graham, 1912. 12mo, brown paper-covered boards with gilt lettering on front, 106pp. AND Jackson, Mary Anna. Memoirs of Stonewall Jackson. Louisville: Prentice Press, 1895. Large 8vo, brown illustrated cloth, 647pp. (EST $200-$300)
Condition: 1st: shelfwear and edge toning, bumped corners and sunned spine. 2nd: paper heavily toned and brittle, numerous chips and margin tears, not affecting text. 3rd: minor corner bumps, else EXC. 4th: boards separating, minor toning, binding still tight.
Lot # 1440
FANTASTIC 1861 INDIANA CIVIL WAR RECRUITING POSTER,
an uncommon pre-printed broadside on newsprint by Banner Office Print, Greencastle, Indiana measuring 12.5” by 18” dated “Quincy (Indiana) Oct. 12, 1861.” Featuring a large patriotic eagle masthead exhorting potential recruits to “Come to the Rescue” invoking the minutemen of 1776 with the call to action: “UPHOLD THE OLD FLAG!” The broadside informs the reader that a company is being made up to serve three years “unless the war closes sooner” under the command of “COLONEL ALEXANDER.”
The company in question became Company B, 59th Indiana Infantry with local citizens Andrew Wilson as captain and Philip McDade as 1st lieutenant. Recruiting for the 59th proceeded slowing as another regiment was then being organized in the same congressional district and took precedence. Colonel Alexander’s instructions from Governor Morton were “not to interfere with the filling of other regiments.” As such, Wilson and McDade were not formally enlisted as Company B’s officers until December 1861 and the regiment waited until February 11, 1862 to be fully organized and mustered into US service, nearly four months after this broadside first appeared.
Honorable Paris Chipman Dunning, was, according to the Indiana Historical Bureau, ...the only person in Indiana history who held all the offices of governor, lieutenant governor, state senator, president pro tempore of the state senate, and state representative. A contemporary described him as speaking "fluently and with marked emphasis. His style, both in speaking and writing, is nervous and bold. (statelib.lib.in.us/www/ilb/govportraits)
The intrepid Jesse L. Alexander served as colonel of the 59th until he resigned in August 1864. Captain Wilson resigned in December 1862 and was replaced by Lieutenant McDade who in turn resigned in April 1863.
The 59th was assigned to Pope’s army of the Mississippi and saw early action at New Madrid and Island No. 10. The regiment fought at Corinth in October 1862 and marched with Grant during his central Mississippi campaign followed by operations on the Yazoo, the backdoor to Vicksburg. As part of the 17th Corps the Indiana boys saw action at Raymond, Jackson, and Champion’s Hill before settling into the siege of Vicksburg. The regiment later fought at Chattanooga and Tunnel Hill and reenlisted as veteran’s on January 1, 1864. The regiment occupied the tense summer of 1864 as lines of communications troops and later joined Sherman for the ‘March to the Sea’ taking part in final operations in the Carolinas including the battle of Bentonville. After witnessing the surrender of Joe Johnston’s army the regiment mustered out on July 17, 1865.
This fine broadside was undoubtedly kept as a keepsake of that October day back in ’61 and has managed to survive the intervening 144 years is remarkably good condition. The poster is housed in a modern frame and we were unable to examine the back for possible writing or to determine whether the sheet has been trimmed (doubtful). (EST $2000-$3000)
Condition: The broadside shows moderate loss of paper along the fold lines and around the edges, the worst being a large section missing on the upper right parallel with the eagle, still G+ to near VG. given the fragility of the newsprint. The paper further exhibits scattered areas of moderate bleaching with the lower left edge in contact with water. Black print and graphics remain bold.
Lot # 1441
CIVIL WAR ERA RECRUITING BANNER FROM PARIS KENTUCKY,
polychrome wood block print on linen, scene of Lady Liberty in flowing stared skirt, white and blue tunic with red sash with stars and red liberty cap, also with stars, holding U.S. flag on staff unfurling behind her with left foot atop a globe and broken iron shackles falling from outstretched right arm, black ground with clouds at feet, 35" x 51", sewn to linen backing, 39" x 59". An inked manuscript label is pasted to top edge of flag that reads Banner used by the Union men of Ky. Paris.
This banner was apparently flown in 1863 outside the Duncan Tavern in Paris, Kentucky, Headquarters of General Samuel Wright. The tag is apparently Wright's (see "Civil War Relics" No. 27, pg. 98, for Wright's collection inventory, in which this banner is listed). (EST $7000-$9000)
Condition: Likely a fragment of a larger banner. Sewn repairs and some unsewn tears, folds, still VG-.
Lot # 1442
STATE JOURNAL EXTRA ANNOUNCING THE CAPTURE OF JEFF DAVIS,
printed broadside circular measuring 3.75” by 7.5”, dated Sunday May 14, 1865. Newsflash is probably from the Lansing, Michigan State Journal reporting “the surprise and capture of Jeff Davis and his staff, by Col. Pritchard, of the 4th Michigan Cavalry, on the morning of the 10th inst., at Irwinville, Irwin County, Georgia.” The Extra appends the full text of a confirming telegram sent to Secretary of War Stanton in Washington by Major General J.H. Wilson. Michigan claimed bragging rights after an intensive manhunt involving the cavalry of several states competing for the honor.
Emotions were running high and Jeff Davis was universally ridiculed, even despised by many in North who felt he should have been immediately hanged by Pritchard’s troopers. (EST $200-$300)
Condition: Circular irregularly cut with fold lines and tear across lower third through copy, G+. Appears to adhere to a black paper backing which we did not try to separate.
Lot # 1443
GROUP OF SOLDIERS' ESCUTCHEONS & CSA BOND,
lot of 4, all framed. Includes engraved escutcheon entitled Soldiers Memorial Company E 206th Regiment of Penna. Vols., with roster of officers and enlisted men including 2 deserters with vignettes of patriotic scenes surrounding roster, printed by J.C. Fuller & Co. Baltimore, 1864, 18" x 24", framed, 21.75" x 26.75"; PLUS engraved chromolithographed escutcheon entitled Soldiers Memorial 87th Regiment Company K Pa. Volunteers with three panel roster of officers and enlisted men with patriotic surmount, published Winchester, Va. by J.L. Anderson, 15" x 20", matted and framed, 19" x 23"; PLUS a partially printed escutcheon with tipped in albumen portrait of Union soldier. Ms inked inscriptions read in Part Samuel M. Conner, Hirainburgh, Ohio, Co. F 18th Regt O.V.I., Musician, with many engraved portraits & patriotic and battle scene vignettes, 24" x 29.5", framed, 25" x 31"; AND an illustrated CSA $1000 bond dated Feb. 17th 1864, with one coupon clipped, 16.5" x 26", framed, 17.7" x 27.2".
The 206th Pa. Vol. was created late in 1864 with officers and men from other units. It never saw any action but performed provost duty after the fall of Richmond. The 87th Pa. Vol. Infantry entered service Sept. 1861 and saw heavy action at Bunker hill, Middletown, Winchester, Manassas gap, Bealeton, Kelly's ford, Brandy Station, Mine Run, Wilderness, Cold Harbor, Defense of Washington from Jubal Early meeting him at Monocacy. Other battles were Opequan, Fisher's hill, Cedar Creek and the final assault on Petersburg. The 18th O.V.I. entered service Sept 1861, battles engaged in include Bridgeport, Limestone Bridge, Manchester, Tenn., Stone River, Chickamauga, Nashville, Huntsville, Decatur, and Murfreesboro. (EST $300-$500)
Condition: 1st damp stains some tears, only G, 2nd toned with several short tears, G++, 3rd, heavy damp staining, much paper loss at margins, 4th as above, else VG.
Lot # 1444
FOUR CONFEDERATE PIECES OF SHEET MUSIC,
all ca 10" x 13", includes The Constitution Our Law: The Southern Galaxy by C.F. Yagle, published by Bromberg & Son New Orleans, 1861, 3pp with illustrated cover portrait of Jefferson Davis; PLUS The Bonnie Blue Flag by Harry Macarthy, published by A.E. Blackmar & Bro., New Orleans, 1861 with hand-colored crossed Confederate flags on cover, 3pp; PLUS Southern Independence Hymn, by J.R. Boulcott, published by Bromberg & Son New Orleans, 1861, 3pp; AND Carrie Bell! a ballad by W.C. Capers and Von La Hache, published by A.E. Blackmar & Bro., Vicksburg, 1861, 3pp.
AUCTIONEERS NOTE: 2nd and 3rd both issued as 5pp with only 3 present. (EST $400-$600)
Condition: Each with scattered foxing, VG. 2nd-3rd issued as 5pp, only 3 present.
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